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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to
Commission File Number 001-38267
RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware82-1669692
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
6500 Chase Oaks Boulevard, Suite 100, Plano, Texas 75023
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)

(978614-8100
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.0001RBBNThe Nasdaq Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes     No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes     No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes     No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes     No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.:
Large accelerated filer  
Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer  
Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes     No 

The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of Ribbon Communications Inc. was approximately $537,874,000 based on the closing price for its common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 30, 2021. As of March 8, 2022, the Registrant had 148,957,278 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value, outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the definitive Proxy Statement to be delivered to stockholders in connection with the Registrant's 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.



Table of Contents

RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
FORM 10-K
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2021
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ItemPage
4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
6.
Selected Financial Data


Table of Contents

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This report contains "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, which are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this report, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, expected benefits from our acquisition of ECI Telecom Group Ltd. and the sale of our Kandy Communications business, business strategy, plans and objectives of management for future operations and plans for future product development and manufacturing are forward-looking statements. Without limiting the foregoing, the words "anticipates", "believes", "could", "estimates", "expects", "intends", "may", "plans", "seeks" and other similar language, whether in the negative or affirmative, are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward looking statements contain these identifying words. Forward-looking statements are based on our current expectations and assumptions regarding our business, the economy and other future conditions. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results to be materially different. We therefore caution you against relying on any of these forward-looking statements. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in these forward-looking statements are discussed in this report, including in Item 1A., "Risk Factors" of Part I. Any forward-looking statement made by us in this report speaks only as of the date on which this report was first filed. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise, except as may be required by law.

3

Table of Contents

PART I

Item 1. Business

Company Overview

We are a leading global provider of communications technology to service providers and enterprises. We provide a broad range of software and high-performance hardware products, network solutions, and services that enable the secure delivery of data and voice communications, and high-bandwidth networking and connectivity for residential consumers and for small, medium, and large enterprises and industry verticals such as finance, education, government, utilities, and transportation. Our mission is to create a recognized global technology leader providing cloud-centric solutions that enable the secure exchange of information, with unparalleled scale, performance, and elasticity. We are headquartered in Plano, Texas, and have a global presence, with research and development, sales and support locations in over thirty-five countries around the world.

Company History

The Ribbon name was created by the merger of Sonus Networks, Inc. and GENBAND US LLC ("GENBAND") in October 2017, with both companies specializing in secure high-performance Voice Over Internet Protocol ("VoIP") technology and solutions. Prior to that, GENBAND had acquired assets of Nortel’s Carrier division in 2010, which include a world-class engineering and sales team, a broad deployment base of products and technology, and a recognized industry reputation and pedigree with customers around the world.

Since our formation in 2017, we have completed several acquisitions to strengthen and expand our portfolio of product offerings to service providers and enterprises. Recent notable acquisitions include:

Edgewater Networks Inc. (August 2018): Expanded our portfolio of security and signaling solutions for the enterprise network edge.
Anova Data, Inc. (February 2019): Expanded our portfolio with additional network optimization, security, and data monetization applications, enabled by an advanced Big Data Analytics and Machine Learning platform.
ECI Telecom Group Ltd. ("ECI") (March 2020) (the "ECI Acquisition"): Further expanded our focus and strategy to include optical transport and Internet Protocol ("IP") networking, switching, and routing products and solutions, and helped us create an industry-leading communications software and networking company with a comprehensive portfolio of advanced voice, security, data and IP optical networking and transport solutions.

Industry Background

Today’s Communications Service Providers ("CSPs") and enterprises are investing in their networks to compete in an ever-changing technology and customer experience landscape driven largely by cloud computing, mobile workforces requiring hyper-connectivity, new high-performance applications and use cases, and an insatiable demand for bandwidth by end-customers and the applications they use. As a result, service providers and enterprises are adding key enabling technologies to their networks for increased flexibility, programmability, scalability, reliability, and to enable new applications and services with an expedited time to market. These investments provide a competitive advantage and bring value-added services to increase network efficiency, increase customer satisfaction and produce new revenue streams. Within these broad industry themes, investment in our products and services is driven by several key industry trends.

Increased Adoption of Cloud Communications and Collaboration

The shift to cloud-based communications began several years ago driven largely by the advantages of running applications in a virtual cloud environment and reducing dependency on on-premises computing and communications technologies. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 ("COVID-19") pandemic has accelerated this trend significantly, driven by the need for more remote working and commerce for many businesses and industries. As a result, businesses and consumers have rapidly shifted from brick-and-mortar facilities and travel to work-from-home, or hybrid work-in-the-office and work-from home, using cloud communications and collaboration platforms such as Microsoft Teams, Zoom Phone and others, and require these communications platforms to be highly secure and scalable.

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Evolution of Communications Service Provider Networks

CSPs of all types continue to face challenges to their businesses because of the significant technological evolution, increasing competition, disruption by Over-the-Top ("OTT") providers (those providing video entertainment over the Internet rather than through traditional cable, telco and satellite networks), and shifts in customer expectations. They also need to drive new revenues with more digital, efficient, automated, secure, and reliable networks driven largely by software, automation, cloud networking, and other technologies such as analytics and machine-learning. All these factors are causing service providers to re-think and evolve, or even over-haul, the way networks are designed, architected, managed, and optimized to deliver services to their customers with disruptive economics. They are migrating their networks and services software to run on private and/or public clouds (referred to as the "Telco Cloud") using cloud-native technologies, architectures and operational processes with automation and concepts such as Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery ("CI/CD"). Increasingly, network operators are also pursuing open, multi-layer optimized and disaggregated IP and Optical networking solutions, where they have the flexibility to assemble networks based on transport and control subsystems from different vendors with software-defined networking. The newest generation of broadband cellular technology ("5G"), and the corresponding promise of new revenue-generating applications and services for consumers and businesses, are key drivers of investment in the evolution of underlying mobile and fixed network infrastructures, and disruptions providing opportunity for new suppliers to be selected.

Service providers in some global regions, as mandated by governments or voluntarily, are also replacing certain incumbent vendor communications equipment and technology in their networks because of concerns for security. This presents a significant growth and market share opportunity.

Insatiable Demand for Hyper-Connectivity and Bandwidth Driven by New Services, Applications, and the Cloud

Our global information society is overflowing with telecommunications data traffic, for business, entertainment, education, surveillance, industrial control, online retail, and many other applications. These applications, increasingly delivered from the cloud, generate a huge amount of data driven largely by the video and image components. This exponential growth in data traffic is expected to continue and even accelerate, enabled by 5G upgrades to the mobile radio network. New applications will emerge, such as Reality/Virtual Reality ("R/VR"), cloud gaming, tele-health, Internet of Things ("IoT"), and Industry 4.0, all made possible by the massive bandwidth increases, low latency and highly secure infrastructure.

At the foundation, high performance Optical connections and advanced IP networking are needed to keep pace with the advancements in communications. This hyper-connectivity will be a key enabler and deliver disruptive ultra-low cost-per-bit communications within and between networks and the cloud, while also delivering on the promise of latency sensitive networking demanded by many of the applications.

Need for Reliable, Secure, High-Bandwidth Enterprise and Critical Infrastructure Communications

Companies and verticals that are classified as being part of a “critical infrastructure” are defined as those companies whose assets, systems, and networks, whether physical or virtual, are considered vital to a country’s national interest. Critical infrastructure providers are under increasing pressure to support new services, reduce carbon emission, improve security, expand automation, and increase safety. Achieving these goals requires a transition to a modernized, secure communications network that supports both IP and optical transport seamlessly. With a seamless integrated IP and optical transport solution, a critical infrastructure network operator can provide a highly reliable, secure, future proof communications solution optimized for critical industries. An essential requirement for this solution includes a security suite that incorporates state-of-the-art operational technologies protection measures, giving operators extra confidence in the security of their network.

Data is the lifeblood of any business, and it must be easily accessible across the enterprise to power business applications and to support services to end-customers. It must also be replicated across multiple locations for business continuity and disaster recovery and must be protected from inappropriate access, theft, and corruption. Enterprises deploy optical networking, secured by optical encryption, to attain the needed performance and security. Similarly, command and control groups within today’s armed forces have a need for high performance secure networks as their strategic sensors and assault systems are becoming more integrated. In this ecosystem, effective decision-making requires the pooling and analysis of data from a vast array of sensors and other information sources. The data must be delivered securely, in real-time, to wherever it is required. These solutions integrate intelligent optical transport with agile IP networking to provide a converged, secure, communication network.

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Addressing the “Digital Divide” with Rural Broadband and High-Speed Internet Connectivity

Governments in many countries around the world are investing to address and help close the digital divide and extend ultra-broadband services and connectivity to underserved communities. As an example, in the United States, the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, the FCC Rural Digital Opportunity Fund ("RDOF"), the 5G Fund for Rural America, and the USDA Rural Development Broadband ReConnect Program expect to provide billions of dollars in funding to deliver broadband connectivity to rural communities in the U.S. Whether working or learning from home, streaming 4K television, or playing the latest online video games, rural subscribers demand dependable, high-speed Internet access to participate and thrive in the digital world. Forward-looking service providers are taking advantage of government funding programs to expand network capacity and transform the communities they serve. Next-generation rural broadband networks help service providers grow their revenues by extending service reach and diversity, and by satisfying the massive pent-up demand for high-speed internet connectivity. Next-generation broadband networks will also leverage new technologies like fixed-wireless access, while laying the foundation for future revenue opportunities like 5G backhaul transport services.

Strategy Overview

Our mission is to create a recognized global technology leader providing open, cloud-centric solutions spanning multiple network layers that enable the secure exchange of communications and information, with unparalleled scale, performance, and elasticity. To realize this mission, we have begun the implementation of a focused strategy for our business underpinned by our transformative ECI Acquisition and migration of communications networks and software applications to the cloud.

Operational Integration - A key step of the strategy includes continuing to successfully drive the integration of ECI and Ribbon to achieve best-in-class operational efficiencies. We have made significant progress and largely completed this integration in 2021, including a revamped internal organization aligned along a business unit model with regional sales teams and integrated corporate functions, as well as the addition of new experienced members to our leadership team.
Intellectual Property and Technology Integration - Beyond operational integration, we continue to explore opportunities to blend the intellectual property and technological know-how underlying the classic Ribbon business with that acquired as part of the ECI Acquisition to develop new products and services to meet the new challenges faced by our customers.
Cross-Selling - We are laser-focused on marketing and selling our combined post-acquisition broad portfolio to our global deployed base of service provider and enterprise customers to expand our presence and share of the larger IP and Optical networking and transport market and cross-sell the complete portfolio.
North American IP Optical Networks Market Share - We expect to continue to unlock the value of the former ECI portfolio by growing IP Optical Networks market share in the North American market by leveraging the extensive deployment base and ongoing business that we have with service providers and enterprise customers. We have already experienced some early cross-selling successes with new IP Optical customer wins in North America announced in the second half of 2020 and in 2021.
Participate in the 5G Opportunity - The ECI Acquisition has also advanced our strategy of expanding into the service provider 5G data domain with the IP Optical Networks portfolio bundled with network analytics and intelligence, and security offerings. We believe 5G is a multi-year opportunity as global service providers roll out the new capital-intensive technology and build out the needed network infrastructure over the next decade. We want to be at the forefront of preparing our customers for the deployment of 5G on two major fronts: providing for metro, backhaul and long-haul transport and networking solutions in service provider networks, industrial verticals, and critical infrastructure; and supporting their needs as new applications, including IoT and AI, become a reality with 5G.
Software-Centric and Cloud-Native Offerings - The value of virtual, cloud-native, and software-driven solutions deployable in the cloud has only grown because of the COVID-19 pandemic and the migration of network services to the Telco Cloud, which underscores another area of major focus for us. As a strategy, we continue to aggressively transition a significant portion of our product portfolio and business model towards more software, cloud-native offerings with automation and as-a-Service selling model. This transition is instrumental in continuing to improve profitability and competitiveness, and growing the recurring revenue portion of our business.
Enterprise Offerings - The market need and growth rate are higher at the network edge than at the core. We are focused on growing this area of our business through our overall enterprise solutions for securing communications and our IP optical network connectivity solutions, which together are typically geared towards critical infrastructure, large enterprises, and small and medium businesses, building on our partnerships with key go-to-market channels and solutions providers such as Microsoft, as well as other popular unified communications and collaboration ("UC&C")
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platforms such as Zoom Phone and similar service provider UC&C offerings. We have recently created a dedicated and expanded sales force focused on the enterprise market segment.
Partnerships - We continually look to form industry partnerships that will enhance our current solution offerings to our customers.
Focus - We maintain a constant feedback loop to ensure we stay focused on activities that support the strategy of our main business segments and ensure our investments in research and development are directly aligned to these goals. As part of this strategy, we completed the sale of our cloud-based enterprise communications services (the "Kandy Communications Business") in December 2020 to American Virtual Cloud Technologies, Inc. ("AVCT"). We believe that the sale enables us to be even more focused on executing our service provider and enterprise strategy to the benefit of our customers while allowing AVCT to unlock Kandy’s true value and strong potential and capitalize on the momentum the business has established. As part of the transaction, we became an investor in AVCT, which means that we have a continued opportunity to capitalize on the continued success of Kandy. We believe execution on this multi-faceted strategy will strengthen our financial foundation, will continue to improve our relationships and collaboration with our customers, and will further align us with our key stakeholders - customers, partners, employees, and investors.

Customers

Our customers are comprised of a diverse set of service providers and enterprises located in over 140 countries around the world. Service provider customers include telephone companies ("telcos") offering fixed and wireless communications services, cable Multi-System Operators ("MSOs") and Communications as a Service providers. Our service provider customers include many of the largest CSPs globally. Enterprise customers include small, medium, and large businesses and industry verticals such as transportation, utilities, government/public sector, finance, and education.

Customers trust us to solve their most challenging communications requirements, enabling people and devices to connect anytime, anywhere. Our customer-centric culture shapes all of our activities and inspires our team members to make a positive impact with our clients, investors, and communities.

In the year ended December 31, 2021, Verizon Communications Inc. ("Verizon") accounted for approximately 16% of our revenue. Verizon is a service provider that offers interconnect, fixed line and mobile communications services, and our software solutions are sold across their business divisions supporting their large enterprises, SMB and consumer telecommunications and cable-related offerings. Our top five customers represented approximately 34% of our revenue in the year ended December 31, 2021.

Segment Information

Effective in the fourth quarter of 2020 and in connection with the ECI Acquisition, our Chief Operating Decision Maker ("CODM") began to assess our performance based on the performance of two separate organizations within the Company: the Cloud and Edge segment ("Cloud and Edge") and the IP Optical Networks segment ("IP Optical Networks"). We had previously operated in a single segment.

Cloud and Edge Business Segment

The Cloud and Edge segment provides secure and reliable software and hardware products, solutions, and services for VoIP communications, Voice Over LTE ("VoLTE") and Voice Over 5G ("VoNR") communications, as well as UC&C services to both service provider and enterprise customers. Our Cloud and Edge products are increasingly software-centric and cloud-native for deployment on private, public, or hybrid cloud infrastructures, in data centers, on enterprise premises, and within service provider private networks.

Cloud and Edge Products and Solutions

Our Cloud and Edge portfolio delivers multiple solutions for enabling VoIP, VoLTE, VoNR, and UC&C in network, on-premises, or via the Telco Cloud for a broad range of service provider and enterprise customers. The solutions provided with this portfolio include those for:

Securing and providing resilient connectivity and calling via direct routing for Operator Connect - Microsoft Teams, Zoom and other cloud-based UC&C applications.
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Securing contact center applications.
Securing service provider hosted and managed unified communications ("UC") services.
Securing network interconnects for communications services.
Network transformation of fixed service provider voice services networks to help evolve, consolidate, and modernize legacy networks to VoIP and onto virtualized network environments or the Telco Cloud.
Implementing IP Multimedia Subsystem ("IMS") networks required by mobile service providers for VoLTE service deployments and for 5G voice services.
Modernizing, evolving, and securing enterprise and industry vertical UC environments, supporting both on-premises and cloud-based deployments.
Securing voice sessions and protecting VoIP communications connectivity infrastructures, contact centers, Private Branch Exchanges ("PBX") and media servers.
Providing identity assurance that helps mitigate robocalls, prevent fraud by determining phone caller identity, intent, and reputation.
Analytics to provide visibility, security, and service assurance to enhance communication network operations and customer experiences.

Our Cloud and Edge market-leading product portfolio consists of two main categories – Session Border Controller ("SBC") products and Network Transformation products:

Our SBC product portfolio encompasses a full range of deployment platforms including:

High performance carrier-grade compute platforms leveraging the latest advancements in silicon including NVIDIA GPU processors.
Feature-rich virtualized and cloud-native software products for deployment in both private and public cloud environments such as Amazon Web Services ("AWS"), Microsoft Azure and Google Cloud Platform ("GCP").
Fully cloud-native implementation supporting as-a-Service ("aaS") offers and business models.
On-premises dedicated appliances that scale up and down to meet the most demanding performance and security requirements.
Our SBC portfolio consists of the following categories of products:
Core network SBCs that are deployable by customers in their core networks, or on private or public clouds, and used to identify, manage, and protect voice communications traffic as it moves through and between communication networks. SBCs secure and interwork different voice communications protocols at IP network boundaries, both within and between service provider and enterprise networks. The portfolio also includes Policy and Routing products that work in heterogeneous voice networks and are used to intelligently manage communications sessions based on multiple policies such as least cost and Quality of Service routing, media type, source or destination, and time of day or week.
Enterprise Session Border Controllers and Edge products, deployable on premises or in the cloud, to enable the deployment and migration to secure cloud-based UC&C applications such as Microsoft Teams, Zoom Phone and service provider UC&C offerings, as well as securing cloud contact center offerings. Enterprise SBCs provide service assurance and visibility within the enterprise for service-provider hosted and managed UC services. Offerings in this portion of our portfolio include Ribbon Connect for Microsoft Teams Direct Routing, a cloud-based aaS offering for securing calls to the public telephone network from the enterprise.
Ribbon Call TrustTM is an aaS offering for providing identity assurance. The identity assurance portfolio, using information from deployed network elements including SBCs, helps mitigate robocalls and prevent fraud by determining phone caller identity, intent, and reputation. With this information, it is possible to help determine if a call is from a
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legitimate person, for a legitimate purpose, and without malicious intent. Our customers utilize these capabilities to provide a better call experience to their end-customers.
A cloud-native Analytics Platform with applications that aid customers in gathering actionable intelligence from their communications network elements, including SBCs in the core and edge of their networks, to provide them with network performance visibility, service assurance, security, and fraud mitigation.

Our Network Transformation product portfolio is deployed in the most demanding environments and enables the modernization of fixed, mobile and enterprise voice communications networks to support network and Telco Cloud-based services and the next generation of IP-based voice communications services and includes multiple software-centric platforms and products including:

Signaling products that provide network signaling for communications services.
Call Controllers that provide call processing within networks for voice communications services and applications.
Media Gateways that perform the interworking or translation of media, or voice sessions and the corresponding network protocols both within and across VoIP and legacy communications networks and use codecs (coder-decoder) and digital signal processors to do so.
A multi-tenant and highly scalable Application Server that enables the deployment of VoIP and UC&C services and applications.

Cloud and Edge Competition

Competition in the market for the Cloud and Edge portfolio remains strong. The market is shifting from an environment dominated by a few large telecommunications legacy hardware equipment companies, such as Ericsson LM Telephone Company ("Ericsson"), Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. ("Huawei"), and Nokia Corporation ("Nokia"), to a market that is characterized by cloud-native software network function virtualization, hybrid private public cloud compute environments, and open interoperable interfaces. We believe this shift creates opportunities for us to differentiate and gain share from competitors such as:

Huawei, Ericsson, Nokia, Oracle Corporation, Cisco Systems, Inc. ("Cisco") and AudioCodes Ltd. for our SBCs, Enterprise Edge products and Ribbon Connect.
Neustar, Inc., Metaswitch Networks (acquired by Microsoft) ("Metaswitch"), First Orion Corp., Secure Logix Corporation, TransNexus, Inc. and Transaction Network Services, Inc. ("TNS") for our Identity Assurance and Call Trust offerings.
Guavus, Inc., NETSCOUT Systems, Inc., Niometrics Pte Ltd, Empirix Inc. and Ericsson for our Analytics offerings.
Huawei, Metaswitch, Nokia and Ericsson for our Network Transformation offerings.

Other smaller private and public companies are also focusing on similar market opportunities. Mergers among any of the above companies or other competitors, as well as additional competitors with significant financial resources entering our markets, could further intensify competition. Mergers between service providers may also increase competition for a smaller number of more concentrated customers and channels for products and solutions.

IP Optical Networks Business Segment

The global information society is generating a very high volume of telecommunications traffic for business, entertainment, education, surveillance, industrial control, and other applications. Technologies like 5G, distributed cloud computing and corresponding applications are predicted to continue this exponential traffic growth. IP and Optical networks are at the foundation of this information economy, and indeed are one of its key enablers, delivering ultra-low cost-per-bit transport and multi-service flexibility. Our IP Optical Networks segment provides high-performance, secure, and reliable hardware and software products and solutions for IP networking, switching, and routing, and optical transport. This portfolio is offered to service provider, enterprise and industry verticals with critical transport network infrastructures including utilities, government, defense, transportation and education and research.

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IP Optical Networks Products and Solutions

Our IP Optical Networks portfolio delivers multiple solutions spanning access, metro, regional, and long-haul geographies, and using ring, mesh, and point-to-point topologies. IP Multiprotocol Label Switching ("MPLS") and other protocols provide a broad range of networking services for our customers. Our solutions for optical and IP transport and networking include 5G-native solutions for mobile-backhaul, metro and edge aggregation, core networking, data center interconnect, legacy network transformation and transport solutions for wholesale carriers. High availability and security also make the solutions ideal for critical infrastructure delivering mission-critical services.

Our IP Optical Networks multi-layer product portfolio consists of:

The Apollo product line provides programmable and open Optical Transport Network ("OTN") capabilities over Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing ("DWDM") support. The OTN layer maps Ethernet and other services into OTN bit streams for transparent optical transmission, and DWDM routes wavelengths of light containing the OTN-encapsulated bit streams across wide areas, greatly increasing the efficiency and capacity of fiber facilities. Our Apollo hardware and software products deliver reconfigurable and programmable low-latency optical transport that simultaneously speeds up provisioning of new services while maximizing traffic throughput at the lowest cost per bit. Apollo supports both capacity-reach optimized optical transmission with up to 1.2 Terabytes per second per channel, as well as power-cost optimized 400 Gigabytes per second optical transmission leveraging 400G ZR+ pluggables. The Apollo product line provides state-of-the-art transparent and flexible DWDM and OTN transport with integrated packet switching capabilities. A modular architecture allows optimized solutions across access, metro, regional, and long-haul networks. Apollo combines high performance, low-latency OTN transport, and OTN switching with software-configurable optical routing for maximum efficiency. Apollo can dynamically reconfigure optimal links in the event of fiber failures to maintain service availability. Apollo is “self-aware” with intelligent reporting for efficient and Software-Defined Networking ("SDN")-ready operations. Apollo also provides deployment choice, whether as an integrated solution or as standalone subsystems for disaggregated open architecture multivendor solutions. A key security feature of Apollo that is used broadly in critical infrastructure and enterprise deployments is Layer 1 Optical Encryption supported by standard and Post Quantum Computing algorithms.
The Neptune product line of high-performance switching and routing solutions are optimized to provide a converged multi-access edge and the service aware routing needed for cost/performance optimized connectivity between consumers and the applications and services they are using. Neptune provides a converged multi-access edge by supporting multiple services delivered over multiple access network technologies. Ethernet interfaces ranging from Gigabit Ethernet ("GbE") through to 100GbE allow all IP/MPLS and Ethernet access networks to be supported, and pluggables providing XGS-PON, EPON and TDM circuit emulation allow PON access networks and legacy TDM access network to be supported. Traffic from the access networks is aggregated and connected to the services, applications, and compute platforms, meeting the specific service level agreements required for each service, including guaranteed latency, jitter, capacity, or reliability. To achieve this, Neptune uses a range of protocols such as IP/MPLS, MPLS-TP ("Transport Profile") and segment routing traffic engineered ("SR-TE"). As services, applications and compute platforms become increasingly distributed across the network, located in local data centers and multi-access Edge compute platforms, Neptune, in conjunction with MUSE, can dynamically route the connectivity wherever it is required, whilst still meeting the performance requirements. In addition, Neptune provides a 400G ZR+ pluggable capability, allowing it to support both single layer IP over DWDM ("IPoDWDM") connectivity or multi-layer optimized IPoOTN/DWDM connectivity, whichever best meets the network operator's needs. With these capabilities, Neptune is ideally suited for residential broadband backhaul, business services, MSOs and private enterprise networks. With Flexible Ethernet, enhanced timing and synchronization capabilities, 25GbE and 50GbE interfaces and high-capacity, high-density platforms, Neptune is also ideal for 5G deployments. These capabilities and unique form factors such as DIN-rail mounting, street cabinet deployment and environmental capabilities also make Neptune a compelling solution for mission critical enterprises.

The Muse SDN multi-layer Domain Orchestrator and cognitive software is a suite of cloud-native applications that deliver SDN domain orchestration for underlying multi-layer Neptune IP and Apollo Optical networks. This covers complete lifecycle management and automation to speed up time to revenue, reduce Total Cost of Ownership, and facilitate integration into wider ecosystems. It is powered by a carrier-grade, cloud-native Platform as a Service ("PaaS") and works in conjunction with our LightSOFTTM network management system. Built for a 5G services world, Muse enables network operators to programmatically configure and combine hard and soft slicing technologies to create slices appropriate to different sets of 5G-enabled services and customer sub-networks. Then, using a rich set of tools, operators can design, provision, and assure a broad array of services on top of the slices. Muse's suite of advanced service and network control applications empower Service Providers to do more, through simple service creation and lifecycle management, proactive network assurance, network optimization, and automation. Muse ensures that people and
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systems receive the right tools to monetize the network effectively through intuitive graphical user interfaces or industry-standard Application Programmable Interfaces.

IP Optical Networks Competition

Competition in the markets addressed by our IP Optical Networks products is strong. The market is shifting from an ecosystem dominated by a few large telecommunications legacy hardware equipment companies with proprietary solutions such as Ciena Corporation ("Ciena"), Cisco, and Nokia, to a market that is characterized by a combination of closed and open solutions, software-defined networking, and dis-aggregation ready for next generation networks, services and applications including 5G, that leverage commercial technology. We believe this shift creates opportunities for us to increase our share as compared to direct competitors such as Cisco, Juniper Networks, Inc., Huawei, Nokia, Ciena, Infinera Corporation, ADVA Optical Networking SE, and Fujitsu Limited. We believe a key differentiation from these competitors is our optimized and integrated multi-layer IP optical solutions. These solutions leverage our SDN, IP routing and optical networking and control plane technologies for both IP and Optical networking layers to create a truly integrated IP Optical Network that optimizes resource utilization in real time, and provides the best overall economics to customers differentiating us from our competitors. Advanced planning algorithms design multi-layer IP Optical networks that maximize traffic handling with failure resiliency by looking holistically at all network layers, providing the best return on Capex. These multi-layer optimized networks can then meet specific customer and service needs on a case-by-case basis.

Services and Support

As service providers and enterprises increasingly adopt telco-cloud, IP-based voice, multimedia, IP and optical transport networks and 5G communications solutions for their markets, they are challenged to find the expertise to install, maintain, and repair these platforms. We have a rich history of providing a broad offering of service-based solutions to complement our products and to help service providers and enterprises grow revenues, serve customers, reduce costs, and improve productivity. Our Global Services organization provides a wide range of services to enable our customers to achieve those goals. Professional and Project Management Services include hundreds of cloud communications, VoIP, IMS voice services and IP and Optical networking specialists and partners offering technical depth, network breadth and tools to assist customers in all aspects of network modernization, design, and deployment. Our Maintenance Support offerings deliver a comprehensive support strategy for all products, applications, and solutions purchased. Our Managed Services offer proactive monitoring to keep customers' production communications running smoothly so they can concentrate on running their business. In addition, our Education Services help ensure customers have the technical knowledge and skills necessary to achieve service readiness and delivery goals to accelerate time-to-market, manage costs, and get the most out of our products and solutions that they use.

Sales and Marketing

We sell our portfolio of products and solutions to service provider and enterprise customers around the globe through both direct sales and indirectly through channel partners, including independent resellers, distributors, service providers and system integrators. Most of our sales to service providers are done directly and most sales to enterprises are done through channel partners. Our direct sales team is organized geographically and by major customers and market to support customer requirements. The sales organization is divided into two regional sales teams – one responsible for the Americas, and one responsible for EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) and APAC (Asia Pacific, including India). Our sales teams sell our full portfolio of products and solutions from both segments to customers in each salesperson's assigned region. Our direct sales force and resellers are supported by a highly trained technical sales engineering staff who work closely with our customers to develop technical proposals and design systems to optimize system performance and economic benefits for our customers.

Our marketing organization is responsible for building awareness of our brand in the markets served and driving engagement with our strategies, solutions, and products. It promotes our brand and portfolio value propositions to key stakeholders, including our customers, channel partners, and prospects globally. The organization develops all of our corporate and portfolio messaging for different target audiences, and manages all customer and industry communication channels, including public relations, digital content (including for the web and social media), events, and trade shows, as well as demand generation and account-based marketing campaigns in conjunction with our sales force.

Manufacturing

We rely on global contract manufacturers and original design manufacturers to manufacture, assemble, test and ship our products. We typically utilize long-term relationships with our contract manufacturers and regularly review business relationships in an attempt to reduce cost of goods and supply risks. We employ formal quality, environmental and ethics management programs with all of our contract manufacturers.
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Our leading manufacturers have presence in multiple international locations. This enables us to implement a flexible manufacturing and logistics landscape for each product line and target markets. This structure also facilitates redundancy and business continuity to mitigate risks related to adverse trade tariff, taxation, and natural disasters. Moreover, we wholly own the intellectual property related to fabrication files, assembly, testing algorithms and manufacturing operating procedures, thus reducing sole dependency on a specific contract manufacturer.

Inventory Suppliers and Sourcing

We work with strategic global suppliers for our key integrated circuit components, systems, and software. Certain of our networking products use third-party optical modules embedded on board or configured as pluggable units. These modules are designed and manufactured by leading optical technology vendors and supplied to us based on agreed-upon our controlled performance specifications.

Our policy is to purchase major components directly from original suppliers or from authorized distributors. We regularly review market trends and volume demand for newly introduced products with our suppliers and distributors to negotiate reduced component pricing as the products mature. We carefully manage end-of-sale and end-of-life transitions to maximize return on investment and minimize wasted material, while maximizing customer satisfaction. When we must source such end-of-life components from distributors and brokers, we typically encounter increased component pricing. In some cases, when such parts cannot be sourced reliably any longer in the open market, we undertake costly redesign efforts with alternative components.

In order to maintain competitive lead time for our customers, we employ sophisticated demand and supply management systems. We also utilize agility and safety stock processes to help meet higher-than-forecasted customer demand to stock raw material and sub-assembly inventory. We occasionally experience unforeseen demand drops of certain products or sub-assemblies due to technology evolution, customer consumption behavior, or shortened product lifecycle. For example, we encountered supply chain disruptions in 2021 due to component demand and logistics complications. We regularly review current inventory levels to ensure adequate reserves for excess and obsolete inventory arising from shortened product life cycle or demand drops.

Research and Development

Our global research and development ("R&D") workforce is geographically distributed across a balanced set of centers of excellence. This allows us to distribute work in a cost-effective manner and provide time-zone sensitive support to our global sales team and customers. We supplement our deep in-house expertise with a small set of long-term contracting partners, allowing us to flex up and down as required to match customer demand.

To maintain our position as a technology leader, we continue to invest in our development methodologies, leveraging and adopting industry best practices in the domains of DevOPs, Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery ("CI/CD"), cloud-native software, Security and Test Automation.

In addition to delivering product-specific feature requests from our customers, our R&D resources that are focused on our Cloud and Edge business segment continue to focus on leading edge technology that will allow our customers to move from purpose-built appliances to fully virtualized and cloud-native solutions, including private, public, hybrid and multi-cloud deployment models as they modernize their networks. We are also investing in aaS variants of our products, fully integrated with cloud-native operational models.

Our IP Optical Networks R&D team continues to focus on empowering our customers with better performance and cost-efficient solutions, improved cost-per-bit, and reduced power and space requirements to lower operating costs. We create innovative solutions that address the exponential increases in bandwidth consumption with improving operational efficiency. Our unique value-add is demonstrated by advanced well-integrated optical and packet solutions managed by state-of-the-art cross platform SDN management system. We are also investing in open and optimized IP and Optical solutions a well as disaggregated networking solutions for our customers.

We leverage modern technologies and industry best practices across all of our products and solutions to provide security at each layer of the solution, enabling end to end security of the overall system. We continue to invest in analytics and automation to allow our customers to operate our solutions at scale with end-to-end visibility and control over the robustness, security, and efficiency of the solution.

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Intellectual Property

We believe intellectual property is fundamental to our business and success, and we depend upon our ability to develop, maintain and protect our technology. We seek to safeguard our investments in technology and rely on a combination of U.S. and foreign patent, trademark, trade secret and copyright law and contractual restrictions to protect the proprietary aspects of our technology. As of December 31, 2021, we had been issued 705 patents in the U.S, which expire between 2022 and 2040, and had 33 in-process patent applications in the U.S. As of such date, we also had 300 issued patents in foreign jurisdictions, and had 27 patent applications. As of December 31, 2021, we had 32 trademarks registered in the U.S. and 117 trademarks registered in foreign jurisdictions.

In addition to the protections described above, we seek to safeguard our intellectual property by employing measures to protect against the unauthorized use or disclosure of the source and object code for our software, documentation and other written materials; licensing our software pursuant to signed license agreements, which impose restrictions on others' ability to use our software; and seeking to limit disclosure of our intellectual property by requiring employees and consultants with access to our proprietary information to execute confidentiality agreements.

We have incorporated third-party licensed technology into certain of our products and may be required to license additional technology from third parties to develop new products or to enhance existing products. Although many companies are often willing to enter into such licensing agreements, no assurance can be provided that such licenses can be negotiated on reasonable terms, or at all. The failure to enter into technology development or licensing agreements, when necessary, could limit our ability to develop new products and could harm our business.

Despite our efforts to protect our technology and proprietary rights as discussed above, unauthorized parties may still obtain and use our technology and software. We have defended, and intend to vigorously defend when necessary, our intellectual property from infringement. Other companies in the communications and technology industries frequently threaten litigation or file suit against us (directly or indirectly through customers to whom we could owe indemnification) based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. We are currently subject to, and expect to face in the future, allegations that we have infringed the intellectual property rights of third parties, including those of our competitors and non-practicing entities.

Regulatory Considerations

As a company with global operations, we are subject to complex U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, including trade regulations, tariffs, import and export regulations, anti-bribery and corruption laws, antitrust or competition laws, cybersecurity, privacy and data protection, among others. In addition, our operations are also subject to a number of environmental regulations such as the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive ("WEEE") and the Directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment ("RoHS"). We have developed policies and procedures to assist us in complying with these laws and regulations. Our historical compliance costs, including those related to environmental regulations, have not resulted in a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition. We expect the laws and regulations to which we are subject will continue to increase and the future costs of compliance with existing or new regulations could materially impact our business in the future.

Our Employees

As a global company, we continue to focus on improving our "One Team" approach, aligning around a work culture that reflects and expresses our values, with global processes and platforms that enable us to work efficiently across borders and functions. We aim to create a workplace that is engaging, inspiring, challenging and inclusive. We strive to be an employer of choice for our current employees and for future employees who are seeking an opportunity to join our dynamic business, positioned at the nexus of global communications technology and social transformation.

As of December 31, 2021, we had a total of 3,685 employees worldwide, located geographically as follows:
Number of employeesPercentage of total
Asia1,509 41 %
North America997 27 %
EMEA1,058 29 %
LATAM121 %

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Approximately 640 employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements or works councils, and we believe that our relations with the labor unions are generally good.

Our values are focused on teamwork, passion (taking pride in our achievements), being a trusted advisor to our customers, innovation and being "TRUE" - Transparent, Respectful, Unpretentious and Empowered. Engaging our employees includes aligning with these values and providing a workplace that is one in which we all work toward shared objectives that contribute to a better world and a better society. We engage our employees by providing opportunities for personal and professional growth and maintaining a culture of open communications where everyone receives constructive performance feedback and is encouraged to offer new ideas about any aspect of the work we do and our ways of doing things.

Diversity, Equity and Inclusion ("DEI"). We believe that having a diverse group of people who contribute different perspectives and viewpoints is a serious competitive advantage and critical to the success of any organization. In our most recent survey completed in 2021, 89% of employees responded that they feel comfortable working at Ribbon and 87% agreed that our employees appreciate others whose gender, backgrounds and beliefs are different from their own. We held our first annual Global Diversity Day in 2021 to engage employees in inspiring dialogue led by expert guest speakers on topics such as gender equality in the workplace and personal accountability for diversity.

Our DEI strategy's initial focus is on achieving stronger representation of women in a variety of roles at all levels of the organization, with an emphasis on women in management. As of December 31, 2021, the percentage of employees in each region that identified as female was as follows:
Percentage of employees identifying as female
Asia26 %
North America20 %
EMEA23 %
LATAM18 %
Percentage of total employees identifying as female23 %

We have established a number of goals to increase the number of women in our workforce. For 2021, we established a goal that at least 25% of our new hires identify as female and we exceeded that goal with approximately 29% of our new hires identifying as female. Longer term, we also want to improve the number of women in management roles and have established a goal of at least 30% of management roles to be held by women by 2025 (and 40% long-term) from an initial baseline of 16%.

Attracting women to technology careers has traditionally been a challenge, and we recognize the need to accelerate the hiring and advancement of women at Ribbon. To support our efforts, we have created the Ribbon Diversity Council that will develop our DEI strategy and create initiatives to deliver stronger diverse representation at Ribbon, including initiatives aimed at improving our outreach to female candidates, expanding options for professional and leadership development, and raising awareness at all levels of the organization to encourage an understanding of more balanced representation of women and other under-represented groups across the Company.

Employee Turnover and Engagement. We believe one of the best ways to monitor our overall employee engagement is through monitoring employee turnover rates, as successful employee engagement helps increase employee tenure and reduce voluntary turnover. For the year ended December 31, 2021, our voluntary employee turnover was 11.6% globally. Like many companies in our industry, this is up significantly from our historical levels. While we have generally been able to successfully backfill these positions, we continue to review the reasons provided by employees as to their departure and have taken a number of steps to address these concerns, including implanting regional salary increases to remain competitive in local markets, reviewing employee benefits, introducing selective retention programs to ensure we retain our key employees in a very competitive employment market globally and providing additional targeted employee engagement in regional locations or functions with higher attrition.

As a further way of measuring employee engagement, in 2022 we again conducted an employee pulse survey to better understand employees' views on items such as our strategy, communication and whether or not they would recommend Ribbon as a place to work. We intend to use the results from this and future surveys to look for ways to continually improve our employee engagement. In 2021, we also created Ribbon Engagement Committees, employee-led groups in each of our major locations, charged with delivering programs of locally relevant activities and events that facilitate networking, enable exchange of ideas and help enhance employee satisfaction, productivity and engagement in local communities.
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Training and Development. We believe investing in our employees' professional development so that they can perform their current roles more effectively and can be prepared for roles of greater responsibility in the future. Our training programs utilize a combination of in-person and online programs and include core modules, some of which are mandatory, relating to ethical conduct, products and services, safety, human rights and anti-corruption, as well as additional tailored programs on topics such as leadership, management, project management and competency development. In 2021, we delivered approximately 18 training hours per employee across our workforce, up from approximately 12 hours in 2020.

Safety, Health and Well-being. We strive for a workplace that is free of hazards for our employees. We take care to comply with applicable safety regulations and have a strong track record for safety that we reinforce through regular training modules in all of our locations.

As a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we have taken a number of steps to help ensure the safety and well-being of our employees. This included closing our offices and shifting most employees to work from home. We instituted a phased return to occupancy plan that provided for a gradual return of employees to our locations on a part-time basis (typically 2-3 days per week) based on the current conditions in the geographic region the office is located in, as well as local regulations. In certain locations, such as India, we also sponsored COVID-19 vaccination drives to assist employees and their families in being able to receive COVID-19 vaccines. We have provided regular communications to our employees to update them on our policies and created a COVID-19 resource site for them that includes information and resources on working from home and links to official resources from the World Health Organization, the Centers for Disease Control and others.

Community Investment. We value the communities in which we work. We encourage a service mindset among our employees wherever they are and support community involvement and engagement. To that end, since 2010, we have provided a day of paid time off for all employees to participate in our Global Day of Service during which they are encouraged to volunteer and contribute to local non-profits in their communities.

For additional information on our employees and our current engagement activities, please see our most recent sustainability report, which is available at ribboncommunications.com/company/company-policies/sustainability-report.

Corporate Governance and Social Responsibility

We are committed to operating ethically, efficiently and inclusively. We believe we contribute to the communities in which we operate through the mitigation of climate change and other global sustainable development priorities. We aim to help improve the quality of the lives of people, society and the health of the planet through leveraging our expertise in transforming networks, enhancing security and delivering world-class solutions. We believe that communications technology and continuous innovation form the backbone upon which sustainable development largely depends. Major technology trends supported by our solutions include the accelerated adoption of collaboration platforms such as Microsoft Teams and Zoom; the 5G revolution; accelerating customers' ability to transfer carbon-intensive data storage from using local physical environments to the cloud; supporting service providers’ increased network demands to allow more people to work from home; and using our analytics solutions to maximize network efficiencies.

We have taken a more strategic position to our environmental, social and governance ("ESG") practices. Our recent materiality study reviewed the expectations and requirements of both our stakeholders and our competitors to focus on the ESG practices that are most critical to our business and those where we believe we can make the largest positive impact. From this materiality study, we published a strategy which we believe will positively impact our future environmental performance, and deliver social benefits for our customers, employees and society at large. Additionally, we believe the governance improvements made as a result of our strategy will result in enhancements in our accountability and that of our suppliers and partners. We have developed three initial targets to display both our confidence in delivery and our commitment to supporting the United Nations' Sustainability Development Goals: (1) reduction of our greenhouse gas emissions by 30% by 2030; (2) improvement in our workforce diversity with a specific goal to achieve at least 30% of women in management by 2025; and (3) enhancement of controls in our supply chain to improve ethical and sustainable conduct amongst our suppliers.

We are committed to protecting the environment and preventing pollution within a product's lifecycle through responsible product design and requiring suppliers to adhere to sustainable practices. An example of this is our focus on continuously improving the power and space efficiency of our products to reduce overall energy consumption in our customers' networks at our own facilities. We align our compliance goals with component directives such as RoHS legislation in the European Union and China and with the European WEEE directive. We also hold a host of internationally recognized certifications for our global offerings, including ISO 9001: 2015 - Quality Management Systems; ISO 14001: 2015 - Environmental Management Systems; and SI 10000: 2013 - Social Responsibility (covering our sites in Israel).
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It has always been paramount to our way of doing business to act with the utmost integrity, honesty and transparency. Our commitment to ethical business practices guide us in our compliance with national and international laws and regulations, including anti-corruption, anti-bribery and unfair competition, antitrust and human rights. We maintain a Code of Conduct that applies to all of our directors, employees, contractors and suppliers. We are committed to strong corporate governance practices, which include building long-term value and assuring success for our stockholders and other stakeholders, including employees, customers and the communities in which we operate.

For additional information regarding our corporate governance and our social responsibility goals and initiatives, please see “Corporate Governance” on our investor relations website (investors.ribboncommunications.com) and our most recent sustainability report, which is available at ribboncommunications.com/company/company-policies/sustainability-report.

Seasonality

We have experienced quarterly fluctuations in customer activity due to seasonal considerations. We typically experience increases in order volume in the fourth quarter due to greater spending on operating and capital expenditures by our service provider customers. We typically experience reductions in order volume toward the beginning of the calendar year, when our service provider customers are operationalizing their annual budgets and plans, which may result in lower revenue in the first quarter. These typical seasonal effects may vary. Accordingly, they should not be considered a reliable indicator of our future operating results.

Additional Information

Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed with or furnished to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), are available free of charge through the SEC's Internet site (http://www.sec.gov) or our Internet site (http://www.ribboncommunications.com) as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website does not constitute a part of this annual report and is not incorporated by reference herein.


Item 1A. Risk Factors

Our business faces significant risks and uncertainties. Certain important factors may have a material adverse effect on our business prospects, financial condition and results of operations, and they should be carefully considered. Accordingly, in evaluating our business, we encourage you to consider the following discussion of risk factors in its entirety in addition to other information contained in or incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K and our other public filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Other events that we do not currently anticipate or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Risk Factors Summary

The following is a summary of the principal risks that could adversely affect our business, operations and financial results:

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

Our quarterly revenue and operating results are unpredictable and may fluctuate significantly quarter to quarter.
The continuing COVID-19 pandemic may have a material adverse impact on our business, financial position and results of operations.
Failure to compete successfully could impair our ability to increase revenues and/or remain profitable.
Our future success is dependent on growing our base of customers and expanding our recurring revenue.
Consolidation in the telecommunications industry could harm our business.
Restructuring activities could adversely affect our ability to execute our business strategy.
Exposure to the credit risk of some of our customers and to credit exposures in fragile financial markets could result in material losses.
Disruptions to relationships with distributors, resellers, system integrators and other channel partners could adversely affect our revenues.
Failure to align our strategic plan with our customers' investments, or failure of products and services to meet customers' demands, could impact our revenues.
Failure of our products to interoperate with our customers' existing networks could result in customer losses.
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Delay in the anticipated shift to more virtualized networks, or failure for customers to adopt our new products and services focused on virtualized networks, could reduce our revenues.
The market for some of our products depends on the availability and demand for other vendors' products.
Failure by our strategic partners or by us in integrating products could harm our business.
We rely on contract manufacturers.
We rely on single or limited sources for supply of some components of our products.
Failure to correctly estimate future requirements for end-of-life products purchased from third parties could harm our operating results or business.
Products may have errors or defects that we find only after full deployment.
Government sales are subject to potential delays and cutbacks, may require specific testing efforts, or impose significant compliance obligations.
Combining ECI, or future companies, may be more difficult, costly or time-consuming than expected, and anticipated benefits and cost savings may not be realized.
Future investments, mergers or acquisitions could be difficult to integrate, disrupt our business, dilute shareholder value and harm our financial condition.
Failure to hire and retain key personnel could negatively impact our ability to meet our business objectives and impair future growth.
Man-made problems, such as terrorism, and natural catastrophic events may disrupt our operations and harm our operating results.

Risks Related to Our International Operations

Worldwide efforts to contain capital spending and global economic conditions and uncertainties may have a material adverse impact on our business.
Growing tensions between Russia and Ukraine could materially impact our sales to customers in that region.
Conditions in Israel may materially and adversely affect our business.
Risks associated with our international operations could impair our ability to grow our international revenue.
Increases in tariffs, trade restrictions or taxes on our products could have an adverse impact on our operations.
Fluctuations in currency exchange rates could negatively impact our financial results and cash flows.
Use and reliance upon research and development resources in global locations may expose us to unanticipated costs and/or liabilities.

Risks Related to Intellectual Property

Our business could be jeopardized if we are unable to protect our intellectual property.
Failure to obtain necessary licenses or ongoing maintenance and support of third-party technology at acceptable prices on acceptable terms, or at all, it could harm our operating results or business.
A breach of the security of our information systems or those of our third-party providers could adversely affect our operating results.

Risks Related to Regulation

Data privacy issues, including evolving laws, regulations and associated compliance, may adversely impact our business and financial results.
Failure to comply with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act ("FCPA") or the U.K. Bribery Act ("UKBA") could subject us to significant civil or criminal penalties.
Governmental export and import controls could subject us to liability, require a license from the U.S. government or impair our ability to compete in international markets.
Changes in governmental regulation, especially with respect to the telecommunications industry, could harm our operating results and future prospects.

Risks Related to Our Indebtedness and Accounting Matters

The terms of our credit agreement could adversely affect our operating flexibility and pose risks of default, which would negatively impact our liquidity and operations.
The value of the securities received in connection with the sale of our Kandy Communications Business is volatile and can significantly impact our financial results.
Impairment of our goodwill or intangible assets may require us to record a significant charge to earnings.
Failure to maintain appropriate internal controls in the future may adversely affect our stock price and our business.

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General Risk Factors

Litigation and government investigations could result in significant legal expenses and settlement payments, fines or damage awards.
Our stock price has been and may continue to be volatile.
We are party to a stockholders' agreement with certain stockholders which provides such stockholders with certain rights that may differ from the rights of our other stockholders.
Delaware law and our charter documents contain provisions that could discourage or prevent a potential takeover.

For a more complete discussion of the material risks facing our business, see below.


Risks Related to our Business and Industry

Our quarterly revenue and operating results are unpredictable and may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and the trading price of our common stock.

Our revenue and operating results may vary significantly from quarter to quarter due to a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control and any of which may cause our stock price to fluctuate. Material factors that may affect our revenue and operating results include those discussed below under “Risks Related to our Business and Industry.”

Equipment purchases by CSPs and enterprises continue to be unpredictable. As with other telecommunications product suppliers, we typically recognize a portion of our revenue in a given quarter from sales booked and shipped in the last weeks of that quarter. As a result, delays in customer orders may result in delays in shipments and recognition of revenue beyond the end of a given quarter. Additionally, we rely on the revenue provided by certain large customers. It can be difficult for us to predict the timing of receipt of major customer orders, and we are unable to control their timing decisions. We have experienced significant variability in the spending patterns and purchasing practices of our customers on a quarterly and annual basis, and we expect that this variability will continue. Consequently, our quarterly operating results are difficult to predict, even in the short term, and a delay in an anticipated sale past the end of a particular quarter may negatively impact our results of operations for that quarter, or in some cases, that year. Therefore, we believe that quarter-to-quarter comparisons of our operating results are not a good indication of our future performance. If our revenue or operating results fall below the expectations of investors or securities analysts or below any guidance we may provide to the market, the price of our common stock could decline substantially. Such a stock price decline could also occur even if we meet our publicly stated revenue and/or earnings guidance.

A significant portion of our operating expenses is fixed in the short term. If revenue for a particular quarter is below expectations, we may not be able to reduce costs and expenses proportionally for that quarter. Any such revenue shortfall would, therefore, have a significant effect on our operating results for that quarter.

The continuing COVID-19 pandemic and resulting effects on global economic conditions may have a material adverse impact on our business, financial position and results of operations.

In 2020, a novel strain of the coronavirus (COVID-19) was declared by the World Health Organization to be a global pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative effect on the global economy, disrupting the various manufacturing, commodity and financial markets and increasing volatility, and has impeded global supply chains. Continuing economic uncertainties as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic may cause our customers to restrict spending or delay purchases for an indeterminate period of time. Travel restrictions imposed as a result of the pandemic have also made it more difficult to meet with existing and potential customers. In addition, our ability to deliver our solutions as agreed with our customers depends on the ability of our global contract manufacturers, vendors, licensors, and other business partners to deliver products or perform services we have procured from them. When the COVID-19 pandemic impairs the ability of our business partners to support us on a timely basis, or negatively impacts the demand for our customers’ other products and services, our ability to perform our customer contracts as well as the demand for our solutions may suffer. In addition, disruptions from the COVID-19 pandemic has included the temporary closures of some of our facilities, as well as those of our contract manufacturers, vendors and suppliers. This workforce disruption has caused, in some cases, the inability to obtain key components of our products, the disruption of logistics necessary to import, export and deliver our solutions.

Future waves and new variants of COVID-19, for which current vaccines may not be as effective or effective at all, could materially impact our business, financial position and results of operations, the degree to which will depend on future developments beyond our control. This includes the continued effect of COVID-19 on economic conditions, as well as workforce disruptions due to illness or compliance with local health and safety measures.

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If we fail to compete successfully against telecommunications equipment and networking companies, our ability to increase our revenue and remain profitable will be impaired.

Competition in the telecommunications market is intense. The market is shifting from an ecosystem dominated by a few large incumbent telecommunications equipment companies, such as Ericsson LM Telephone Company, Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. and Nokia Corporation, to a market with competitors that are characterized by network virtualization, migration to the cloud, and open interfaces. We believe this shift creates opportunities for us, as well as our direct competitors in telecommunications and networking. The shift also creates opportunities for new entrants, including some that may currently be our strategic partners, that could become competitors in the industry. See Item 1. "Business – Competition". Mergers among any of these or other competitors could strengthen their ability to compete against us, and additional competitors with significant financial resources entering our markets could further intensify competition.

To compete effectively, we must deliver innovative products that provide extremely high reliability and quality; deploy and scale easily and efficiently; interoperate with existing network infrastructures and multivendor solutions; provide effective network management, as well as comprehensive customer support and professional services; provide a cost-effective and space-efficient solution for enterprises and service providers; meet price competition from low cost equipment providers; and offer solutions that are timely for the market and support where the industry is heading.

Many of our current and potential competitors have significantly greater selling and marketing, technical, manufacturing, financial and other resources than we have. Further, some of our competitors sell significant amounts of other products to our current and prospective customers and have the ability to offer lower prices to win business. Our competitors' broad product portfolios, coupled with already existing relationships, may cause our customers to buy our competitors' products or harm our ability to attract new customers.

If we are unable to compete successfully against our current and future competitors, we could experience price reductions, order cancellations and loss of customers and revenue, and our operating results could be adversely affected.

Our future success is dependent on growing our base of customers and expanding our recurring revenue from our existing customers.

We rely on certain key customers, and our future success will depend on our ability to generate recurring business from our existing customers and to attract additional customers beyond our current customer base. One customer, Verizon Communications Inc., contributed approximately 16% of our revenue in the year ended December 31, 2021. Our top five customers contributed approximately 34% of our revenue in 2021. Factors that may affect our ability to grow our customer base include, but are not limited to, economic conditions that discourage potential new customers from making the capital investments required to adopt new technologies; deterioration in the general financial condition of service providers and enterprises, or their ability to raise capital or access lending sources; new product introductions by our competitors; and the success of our channel partner program. If we are unable to expand our customer base, the loss of any significant customer, or any substantial reduction in purchase orders or deferral of purchasing decisions from these customers, could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Consolidation in the telecommunications industry could harm our business.

The telecommunications industry, including many of our customers, has experienced consolidation, including, in the carrier space, the merger between T-Mobile US, Inc. and Sprint Corporation (April 2020) and the acquisition of Blue Face Ltd. by Comcast Corporation (January 2020). Further, consolidation has also occurred in the telecommunications supplier and vendor space, including the proposed combination of ADTRAN, Inc. and ADVA (expected to be completed in 2022), the acquisition of Acacia Communications, Inc. by Cisco Systems, Inc. (March 2021) and the closing of a strategic partnership between RingCentral, Inc. and Avaya Holdings Corp. (October 2019).

We expect this trend to continue. Consolidation among our customers may cause delays or reductions in capital expenditure plans by such customers and/or increased competitive pricing pressures as the number of available customers declines and the relative bargaining power of customers increases in relation to suppliers. Any of these factors could materially adversely affect our business.

Restructuring activities could adversely affect our ability to execute our business strategy.

We recorded net restructuring expense of $11.7 million and $16.2 million in 2021 and 2020, respectively, including severance and related costs, facilities restructuring and accelerated amortization of lease assets. In 2022, we expect to record additional restructuring expense of approximately $20 million as we look to further streamline operations and consolidate our global footprint to reflect, among other things, a greater percentage of our workforce working from home on a go-forward basis.
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Our current restructuring and any future restructuring, should it become necessary for us to further restructure our business due to market conditions or other factors that reduce the demand for our products and services, could adversely affect our ability to execute our business strategy in a number of ways, including through loss of key employees; diversion of management's attention from normal daily operations of the business; diminished ability to respond to customer requirements related to both products and services; disruption of our engineering and manufacturing processes, which could adversely affect our ability to introduce new products and to deliver products both on a timely basis and in accordance with the highest quality standards; and/or reduced ability to execute effectively internal administrative processes, including the implementation of key information technology programs.

There can be no assurance that any restructuring actions we have taken in the past, or may take in the future, will improve our financial condition or results of operations.

We are exposed to the credit risk of some of our customers and to credit exposures in fragile financial markets, which could result in material losses.

Due to our reliance on significant customers, we are dependent on the continued financial strength of our customers. If one or more of our significant customers experience financial difficulties, it could result in uncollectable accounts receivable and our loss of significant customers and anticipated revenue.

Most of our sales are on an open credit basis, with typical payment terms of 30 to 90 days. In our IP Optical Networks segment, some payment terms may be as long as 180 days or, in limited circumstances, even longer. We evaluate and monitor individual customer payment capability in granting such open credit arrangements, maintain reserves that we believe are adequate to cover exposure for doubtful accounts, and in some cases, insure credit risk. However, there can be no assurance that our open credit customers will pay the amounts they owe us or that the reserves we maintain will be adequate to cover such credit exposure. Our sales derived through distributors, in particular, represent sources of increased credit risk as distributors tend to have more limited financial resources than other resellers and end-user customers.

Our customers' failure to pay and/or our failure to maintain sufficient reserves could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. Additionally, in the event that turmoil in the credit markets makes it more difficult for some customers to obtain financing, those customers' ability to pay could be adversely impacted, which in turn could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Disruptions to, or our failure to effectively develop relationships with and manage, distributors, resellers, system integrators and other channel partners, and the processes and procedures that support them, could adversely affect our ability to generate revenue from the sale of our products and services.

We continue to enhance our sales strategy, which we expect will include more partner sales engagements to resell our products and services through authorized distributors, value-added resellers ("VARs"), system integrators and other channel partners. Our future success is dependent upon establishing and maintaining successful relationships with a variety of distributors, VARs, system integrators and other channel partners. We may also need to pursue strategic partnerships with vendors that have broader technology or product offerings in order to compete with end-to-end solution providers. In addition, many of the enterprise markets we are pursuing require a broad network of resale partners in order to achieve effective distribution.

Many of our distribution and channel partners sell competitive products and services, and the loss of, or reduction in sales by, these partners could materially reduce our revenue. Our sales through channel partners typically involve the use of our products as components of a larger solution being implemented by systems integrators. In these instances, the purchase and sale of our products are dependent on the channel partners, who typically control the timing, prioritization and implementation of projects. If we fail to maintain relationships with our distribution, VAR and systems integration partners, fail to develop new relationships with other partners in new markets, fail to manage, train or provide incentives to our existing partners effectively, or if these partners are not successful in their sales efforts, sales of our products and services may decrease and our operating results could suffer. Moreover, if we do not have adequate personnel, experience and resources to manage the relationships with our partners and to fulfill our responsibilities under such arrangements, any such shortcomings could have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations.

If our strategic plan, including our research and development of innovative new products and the improvement of existing products, is not aligned with our customers’ investments in the evolution of their networks, or if our products and services do not meet customers’ demands, customers may not buy our products or use our services.

We spend a significant amount of time, money and resources both developing new technology, products and solutions and acquiring new businesses or business assets to help keep up with rapid technology and market changes. Our strategic plan
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includes a continued shift in our investments from mature technologies that previously generated significant revenue for us toward certain next-generation technologies. Our choices of specific technologies to pursue, and those to de-emphasize, may prove to be inconsistent with our customers' investment spending. Moreover, if we invest in the development of technologies, products and solutions that do not function as expected, are not adopted by the industry, are not ready in time, are not accepted by our customers as quickly as anticipated or at all, mature more quickly than we anticipated or are not successful in the marketplace, our sales and earnings may suffer and, as a result, our stock price could decline.

To achieve market acceptance for our products, we must effectively anticipate, and adapt in a timely manner to, customer requirements and offer products and services that meet changing customer demands. Prospective customers may require product features and capabilities that our current products do not have. The introduction of new or enhanced products also requires that we carefully manage the transition from older products in order to minimize disruption in customer ordering patterns and ensure that adequate supplies of new products can be delivered to meet anticipated customer demand. If we fail to develop products and offer services that satisfy customer requirements or if we fail to effectively manage the transition from older products, our ability to create or increase demand for our products and services could be seriously harmed, we may lose current and prospective customers and our results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

If our products do not interoperate with our customers' existing networks, we may not retain current customers or attract new customers.

Many of our customers will require that our products be designed to interface with their existing networks, each of which may have different specifications. Issues caused by an unanticipated lack of interoperability may result in significant warranty, support and repair costs, divert the attention of our engineering personnel from our hardware and software development efforts and cause significant customer relations problems. If our products do not interoperate with those of our customers' networks, installations could be delayed or orders for our products could be canceled, which would seriously harm our gross margins and result in loss of revenue or customers.

We believe the telecommunications industry is in the early stages of a major architectural shift to the virtualization of networks. If the architectural shift does not occur, if it does not occur at the pace we predict, or if the products and services we have developed are not attractive to our customers after such shift takes place, our revenue could decline.

We believe the telecommunications industry remains in the early stages of transitioning to the virtualization of networks. While we anticipate that the industry shift to a software-centric cloud-based architecture is likely to happen, fundamental changes like this often take time to accelerate. In addition, our customers may adapt to such changes at varying rates. As our customers take time to determine their future network architectures, we may encounter delayed timing of orders, deferred purchasing decisions and reduced expenditures by our customers. These longer decision cycles and reduced expenditures may negatively impact our revenue or make it difficult for us to accurately predict our revenue, either of which could materially adversely affect our results of operations and cause our stock price to decline.

Virtualization of our product portfolio, particularly in our Cloud and Edge segment, to increasingly focus on software-based products could also adversely impact our revenue growth. As we virtualize our product portfolio, we expect our margins to improve due to decreased costs tied to production and sales of our appliance products, however, our revenue may decline as a result of the decreases in sales of appliance products, many of which have generated higher revenue on a per-unit basis than certain of our software products.

The market for some of our products depends on the availability and demand for other vendors' products.

Some of our products, particularly those addressing the Unified Communications market, are designed to function with other vendors' products. In these cases, demand for our products is dependent upon the availability, demand for, and sales of the other vendors' products, as well as the degree to which our products successfully interoperate with the other vendors' products and add value to the solution being provided to the customer. If the other vendors change the design of their products, delay the issuance of new releases, fail to adequately market their products, or are otherwise unsuccessful in building a market for their products, the demand for our products will be adversely affected, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Failure by our strategic partners or by us in integrating products provided by our strategic partners could harm our business.

Our solutions include the integration of products supplied by strategic partners. We rely on these strategic partners in the timely and successful deployment of our solutions to our customers. If the products provided by these partners have defects or do not operate as expected, if the services provided by these partners are not completed in a timely manner, if our partners have organizational or supply issues, or if we do not effectively integrate and support products supplied by these strategic partners,
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then we may have difficulty with the deployment of our solutions that may result in loss of, or delay in, revenue; increased service, support and warranty costs and a diversion of development resources; and/or network performance penalties.

In addition to cooperating with our strategic partners, such as Microsoft, on specific customer projects, we also may compete in some areas with these same partners. If these strategic partners fail to perform or choose not to cooperate with us on certain projects, in addition to the effects described above, we could experience loss of customers and market share, or fail to attract new customers.

If our contract manufacturers fail to perform, or if we change or consolidate manufacturers, we may fail to meet the demands of our customers and damage our customer relationships, which could materially adversely affect our business.

We currently rely on a number of large global contract manufacturers to assemble our products according to our specifications and to fulfill orders on a timely basis. Reliance on a third-party manufacturer involves a number of risks, including a lack of control over the manufacturing process, inventory management and the potential absence or unavailability of adequate capacity. These risks are amplified by the current supply chain disruptions being experienced globally. As we do not have the internal manufacturing capabilities, any difficulties or failures to perform by our contract manufacturers could cause delays in customer product shipments, which could negatively affect our relationships with customers and result in delayed revenue.

In addition, any future changes to or consolidations of our current contract manufacturers could lead to material shortages or delays in the supply of our products. Qualifying a new contract manufacturer to commence commercial scale production or consolidating to a reduced number of contract manufacturers are expensive and time-consuming activities and could result in a significant delay in the supply of our products, which could negatively affect our relationships with customers and result in delayed revenue.

We and our contract manufacturers rely on single or limited sources for supply of some components of our products and if we fail to adequately predict our manufacturing requirements or if our supply of any of these components is disrupted, we will be unable to ship our products in a timely manner, or at all.

We and our contract manufacturers both purchase several key components of our products. Depending upon the component, there may or may not be alternative sources of substitutes. If we overestimate our component and finished goods requirements, we could have excess inventory, which would increase our costs. If we or our contract manufacturers underestimate our requirements, we may not have an adequate supply, which could interrupt manufacturing of our products and result in delays in shipments and revenue. If any of our sole or limited source suppliers experiences capacity constraints, work stoppages or other reductions or disruptions in output, it may not be able to meet, or may choose not to meet, our delivery schedules. Moreover, we have agreed to compensate our contract manufacturers in the event of termination or cancellation of orders, discontinuance of product or excess material.

We currently do not have long-term supply contracts with our component suppliers and they are not required to supply us with components for any specified periods, in any specified quantities or at any set price, except as may be specified in a particular purchase order. In the event of a disruption or delay in supply or our inability to obtain components, we may not be able to develop an alternate source in a timely manner or at favorable prices, or at all. While we regularly monitor our inventory of supplies, a failure to find acceptable alternative sources could hurt our ability to deliver high-quality products to our customers and negatively affect our operating margins.

Reliance on our suppliers also exposes us to potential quality variations and unforeseen price increases. Any disruption in the supply of key components would seriously adversely affect our ability to meet committed delivery dates and could result in loss of customers, harm to our ability to attract new customers, or legal action. Additionally, any unforeseen increases in the prices of components could reduce our profitability or force us to increase our prices, which could result in a loss of customers or harm our ability to attract new customers and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. For example, in the fourth quarter of 2021, we estimate that higher component costs, expedite and production fees and logistics expenses resulting from the global supply chain disruption reduced our gross margin by approximately 220 basis points.

Our customer contracts also generally allow customers to reschedule delivery dates or cancel orders within certain time frames before shipment without penalty and outside those times frames with a penalty. Because of these and other factors, there are risks of excess or inadequate inventory that could negatively affect our expenses and results of operations.

If we are unable to correctly estimate future requirements for hardware products that we purchase from our third-party vendors that have reached the end of their life cycles, it could harm our operating results or business.

Some of the hardware products that we purchase from our third-party vendors have reached the end of their life cycles. It may be difficult for us to maintain appropriate levels of the discontinued appliances to adequately ensure that we do not have a
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shortage or surplus of inventory of these products. If we do not correctly forecast the demand for such appliances, we could have excess inventory and may need to write off the costs related to such purchases and such write-offs could materially adversely affect our operating results. However, if we underestimate our forecast and our customers place orders to purchase more products than are available, we may not have sufficient inventory to support their needs. If we are unable to provide our customers with enough of these products, it could make it difficult to retain certain customers, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business.

Our products may have errors or defects that we find only after full deployment.

Many of our products are sophisticated and are designed to be deployed in large and complex networks around the world. Because of the nature of our products, they can only be fully tested when substantially deployed in these networks. Some of our customers may discover errors or defects in the software or hardware, or the products may not operate as expected only after full deployment. Our customers expect us to establish a support infrastructure and maintain demanding support standards to ensure that their networks maintain high levels of availability and performance. As we continue to expand our distribution channel through distributors and resellers, we will need to rely on and support their service and support organizations. If we, or our distributors and resellers, are unable to fix errors or other performance problems that may be identified after full deployment of our products, or provide the expected level of support and service to our customers, we could experience increased service, support and warranty costs and a diversion of development resources, loss of customers, network performance penalties and/or legal actions by our customers, which could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Disruptions to, or our failure to effectively develop, manage and maintain our government customer relationships could adversely affect our ability to generate revenue from these customers. Further, such government sales are subject to potential delays and cutbacks, may require specific testing efforts, or impose significant compliance obligations.

A portion of our total revenue from product sales comes from contracts with government agencies in the U.S. and other foreign countries. Disruptions to or our failure to effectively develop, manage and maintain our government customer relationships could adversely affect our ability to generate revenue from the sales to such customers. Governments routinely investigate and audit government contractors’ administrative processes, and any unfavorable audit could result in a government refusing to continue buying our products and services, a reduction of revenue or fines or civil or criminal liability if the audit uncovers improper or illegal activities, which could materially adversely impact our operating results.

Factors that could impact federal government spending on our products and services include a significant decline in, or reapportioning of, spending by the federal government customers, changes, delays or cancellations of government programs or requirements, the adoption of new laws or regulations, government shutdowns or other delays in the government budget and/or appropriations process, changes in the political climate and general economic conditions. The loss or significant curtailment of any government contracts or subcontracts, whether due to our performance or due to interruptions or changes in governmental funding, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Further, sales to government customers may require specific testing efforts or impose significant compliance or certification obligations. For example, the U.S. Department of Defense ("DOD") has issued specific requirements for IP networking products for features and interoperability. In order for our products to be used to connect to the DOD network, that product must pass a series of significant tests and be certified by the Joint Interoperability Test Command (“JITC”). While certain of our products are certified by JITC, if we are unable to obtain future JITC certification as needed, our DOD sales and results of operations, may suffer.

Combining ECI, or future companies, may be more difficult, costly or time-consuming than expected and the anticipated benefits and cost savings of the ECI Acquisition, or future mergers may not be realized.

We have a history of significant mergers and acquisitions, including, most recently, the ECI Acquisition. The success of the ECI Acquisition, and any future merger or acquisition, including anticipated benefits and cost savings, will depend, in part, on our ability to successfully combine and integrate the businesses. It is possible that the integration process could result in the loss of key employees, higher than expected costs, diversion of management attention, the disruption of our ongoing businesses or inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures and policies that adversely affect the combined company’s ability to maintain relationships with customers, vendors and employees or to achieve the anticipated benefits and cost savings of the ECI Acquisition or any future merger or acquisition.

We have incurred and will incur transaction fees, including legal, regulatory and other costs associated with closing the ECI Acquisition as well as expenses relating to formulating and implementing integration plans, including facilities and systems consolidation costs and employment-related costs. Additional unanticipated costs may be incurred in the ECI Acquisition and the integration of the two companies’ businesses, or in future acquisitions. While we expect that the elimination of duplicative
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operating costs as well as the realization of other efficiencies related to the integration of the businesses should allow us to offset integration-related costs over time, this net benefit may not be achieved in the near term or at all. As part of the integration process, we may also attempt to divest certain assets of the combined company, which may not be possible on favorable terms, or at all, or if successful, may change the profile of the combined company. If we experience difficulties with the integration process, the anticipated benefits of the ECI Acquisition, or any future acquisition, may not be realized fully or at all, or may take longer to realize than anticipated. The actual cost savings of the ECI Acquisition could also be less than expected.

Any future investments, mergers or acquisitions we make or enter into, as applicable, could be difficult to integrate, disrupt our business, dilute shareholder value and seriously harm our financial condition.

We have a history of significant acquisitions, including the recent ECI Acquisition, and we may merge with or acquire additional businesses, products or technologies in the future or sell a portion of our business. No assurance can be given that any future merger, acquisition or disposition will be successful or will not materially adversely affect our business, operating results or financial condition. We continue to review opportunities to merge with or acquire other businesses or technologies that would add to our existing product line, complement and enhance our current products, expand the breadth of our product and service offerings, enhance our technical capabilities or otherwise offer growth opportunities. If we enter into a merger or make acquisitions in the future, we could, among other things issue stock that would dilute existing stockholders' percentage ownership; incur significant debt or assume significant liabilities; materially reduce our cash; incur significant amortization expenses related to intangible assets; and/or incur large and immediate write-offs for in-process research and development and stock-based compensation.

Mergers, acquisitions and dispositions are inherently risky and subject to many factors outside of our control. Therefore, we cannot be certain that we would be successful in overcoming problems in connection with our past or future acquisitions. Our inability to do so could significantly harm our business, revenue, and results of operations.

Failure to hire and retain key personnel could negatively impact our ability to meet our business objectives and impair our future growth.

Our business depends upon highly skilled technical, managerial, engineering, sales, marketing and customer support personnel. Competition for these personnel is intense, especially during times of economic recovery or growth. Any failure to hire, assimilate in a timely manner and retain key qualified personnel, particularly engineering and sales personnel, could impair our growth and make it difficult to meet key objectives, such as timely and effective product introductions. In addition, our ability to attract and retain key employees could be adversely impacted if we do not have a sufficient number of shares available under the Amended and Restated 2019 Stock Incentive Plan to issue to our employees. We may not be able to locate suitable employees for any key employee who leaves or offer employment to potential replacements on reasonable terms.

Our future success also depends upon the continued services of our executive officers who have critical industry experience and relationships that we rely on to implement our business plan. None of our officers or key employees is bound by an employment agreement for any specific term. The loss of the services of any of our executive officers or key employees could delay the development and introduction of, and negatively impact our ability to sell, our products and achieve our business objectives.

Man-made problems, such as terrorism, and natural catastrophic events may disrupt our operations and harm our operating results.

The continued threat of terrorism and heightened security and military action in response to this threat, or any future acts of terrorism, may cause disruptions to the economies of the United States and other countries. Events such as work stoppages or widespread blackouts could have similar negative impacts. Such disruptions or uncertainties could result in delays or cancellations of customer orders or the manufacture or shipment of our products and have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Natural catastrophic events, such as earthquakes, fires, floods, tornadoes, or pandemics (such as the COVID-19 pandemic) may also affect our or our customers' operations. For example, we have offices located in the San Jose area of Northern California; Mexico City, Mexico; and Tokyo, Japan, regions known for seismic activity. A significant natural disaster, such as wildfires, earthquakes or floods, could have a material adverse effect on our business in these locations.

Risks Related to our International Operations

Worldwide efforts to contain capital spending and global economic conditions and uncertainties in the geopolitical environment have been and may continue to be materially adverse to our business.
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A factor that significantly affects our operating results is the impact of economic conditions on the willingness of our current and potential customers to make capital investments. Given the general uncertainty regarding global economic conditions and other factors, we believe that customers have tried to maintain or improve profitability through cost control and constrained capital spending, which places additional pressure on IT departments to demonstrate acceptable return on investment. Some of our customers have canceled or delayed, and current and prospective customers may continue to cancel and delay, spending on the development or roll-out of capital and technology projects with us due to economic uncertainty and, consequently, our results of operations have been, and may continue to be, adversely affected. In addition, current uncertain worldwide economic and political environments make it increasingly difficult for us, our customers and our suppliers to accurately forecast future product demand, which could result in an inability to satisfy demand for our products and a loss of market share. Our revenue is likely to decline in such circumstances, which may result in erosion of our profit margins and significant losses.

Moreover, economic conditions worldwide may contribute to slowdowns in the communications and networking industries, as well as to specific segments and markets in which we operate, particularly the wireline sector, resulting in, among other things, reduced demand for our products and services as a result of our customers choosing to refrain from building capital intensive networks; increased price competition for our products, not only from our competitors, but also as a consequence of customers disposing of unutilized products; and risk of excess and obsolete inventories. Continuing turmoil in the geopolitical environment in many parts of the world may continue to put pressure on global economic conditions which in turn, could materially adversely affect our operating results. For example, following recent border clashes with China, India has enacted bans on the import of some goods manufactured in China. While the current import bans do not include our products, if India expands the bans to include the products we sell in India that are currently manufactured in China, we may be required to find new manufacturing locations for such products. While we have developed plans to relocate our manufacturing sites if needed, the timing required for relocation, or if we are not successful in relocating, could impact our ability to sell such products or timely deliver the products, and could result in lower or lost sales in India. The need to move manufacturing of such products could also negatively impact the margin earned on the sale of such products. If these or other sanctions are enacted, they may limit our ability to provide products and services in an important country or region for our business.

The military action between Russia and Ukraine, and the sanctions imposed as a result, could materially impact our sales to customers in that region.

For 2021, approximately 6% of our sales was to customers in Russia, Ukraine and surrounding countries. In February 2022, Russia commenced military action in Ukraine, and the uncertainty resulting from this military action and the threat for expansion of the conflict has resulted in some of our customers delaying purchases from us and is expected to result in additional delays or reductions in sales to customers in the impacted region. Further, the U.S. and other European countries have imposed sanctions against Russia in connection with the conflict. While these sanctions are in place, we believe they will severely limit, if not prohibit, our ability to sell our products and services to customers in Russia and, if expanded, could impact our ability to collect on outstanding accounts receivable from such customers. If the military action continues and the sanctions remain in place for an extended period, it could have a material impact on our financial results.

Conditions in Israel may materially and adversely affect the Company’s business.

We have a significant number of employees located in Israel. As a result, political, economic and military conditions in Israel may directly affect the Company’s business. In recent years, there have been hostilities between Israel and Hezbollah in Lebanon and Hamas in the Gaza Strip, both of which resulted in rockets being fired into Israel, causing casualties and disruption of economic activities. Popular uprisings in various countries in the Middle East and North Africa over the last few years has also affected the political stability of those countries and have led to a decline in the regional security situation. Such instability may also lead to deterioration in the political and trade relationships that exist between Israel and these countries. Any armed conflicts, terrorist activities or political instability involving Israel or other countries in the region could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and prospects. Although the Israeli Government currently covers the reinstatement value of direct damages that are caused by terrorist attacks or acts of war, we cannot ensure shareholders that this coverage will be maintained or will be adequate in the event we submit a claim.

A number of countries, principally in the Middle East, still restrict doing business with Israel and Israeli companies, and additional countries may impose restrictions on doing business with Israel and Israeli companies if hostilities in Israel or political instability in the region continue or increase. In addition, there have been increased efforts by activists to cause companies and consumers to boycott Israeli goods based on Israeli Government policies. Such actions, particularly if they become more widespread, may adversely impact our ability to sell our products.

Our operations could also be disrupted by the absence for significant periods of one or more key employees or a significant number of other employees because of military service. Some of our employees in Israel are obliged to perform military reserve duty, which generally accumulates over a period of three years from several days to up to a maximum of 84 days (and
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up to 108 days, in special circumstances specified under applicable law) and, in certain emergency circumstances, employees may be called to immediate and unlimited active duty. In response to increases in terrorist activity, there have been periods of significant call-ups of military reservists and it is possible that there will be similar large-scale military reserve duty call-ups in the future. Any of these circumstances could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and prospects.

We may face risks associated with our international operations that could impair our ability to grow our international revenue.

We have expanded, and expect to continue to expand, our operations in international and emerging markets. International operations are a significant part of our business, accounting for approximately 56% of total revenues in 2021. We expect such operations to continue to require significant management attention and financial resources to successfully grow. In addition, our international operations are subject to other inherent risks, including:

greater reliance on channel partners;
difficulties collecting accounts receivable and longer collection cycles;
difficulties and costs of staffing and managing international operations;
impacts of differing technical standards;
compliance with international trade, customs and export control regulations;
foreign government regulations limiting or prohibiting potential sales or increasing the cost of doing business in such markets, including adverse tax policies, tariffs, customs regulations, trade protection measures, export quotas and qualifications to transact business;
foreign currency exchange controls, restrictions on repatriation of cash and changes in currency exchange rates;
any need to adapt and localize our products for specific countries;
our ability to effectively price our products in competitive international markets; and
political, social and economic instability, including as a result of the fragility of global financial markets, health pandemics or epidemics and/or acts of war or terrorism.

Our international revenue, both as a percentage of total revenue and absolute dollars, may vary from one period to the next, and accordingly, current data may not be indicative of future periods. If we are unable to support our business operations in international and emerging markets, or their further expansion, while balancing the higher operational and financial risks associated with these markets, our business and results of operations could be harmed.

In addition, we may not be able to develop international market demand for our products, which could impair our ability to grow our revenue. In many international markets, long-standing relationships between potential customers and their local suppliers and protective regulations, including local content requirements and approvals, create barriers to entry. We have limited experience marketing, distributing and supporting our products in certain international locations and, to do so, we expect that we will need to develop versions of our products that comply with local standards. Moreover, difficulties in foreign financial markets and economies and of foreign financial institutions, particularly in emerging markets, could adversely affect demand from customers in the affected countries.

Increases in tariffs, trade restrictions or taxes on our products, as well as other risks of international operations, could have an adverse impact on our operations.

We manufacture certain of our appliance products and purchase a portion of our raw materials and components from suppliers in Mexico, Malaysia, China and other foreign countries. The commerce we conduct in the international marketplace makes us subject to tariffs, trade restrictions and other taxes when the raw materials or components we purchase, and the products we ship, cross international borders. Import tariffs and/or other mandates recently imposed by the United States have and could in the future lead to retaliatory actions by affected countries, including China, resulting in “trade wars,” and could significantly increase the prices on raw materials, the manufacturing of our equipment, and/or increased costs for goods imported into the United States, all of which are critical to our business. While we have developed plans to adjust manufacturing locations, if necessary, to avoid tariffs or other restrictions, any such tariffs could reduce customer demand for our products if our customers have to pay increased prices for our products as a result of such tariffs. In addition, tariff increases may have a similar impact on other suppliers and certain other customers, which could increase the negative impact on our operating results or future cash flows.

We are exposed to fluctuations in currency exchange rates that could negatively impact our financial results and cash flows.

Because a portion of our business is conducted outside the United States, we face exposure to adverse movements in foreign currency exchange rates. These exposures may change over time as business practices evolve, and they could have a material adverse impact on our financial results and cash flows. An increase in the value of the U.S. dollar could increase the real cost to
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our customers of our products in those markets outside the United States where we often sell in dollars, and a weakened U.S. dollar could increase the cost of local operating expenses and procurement of raw materials from sources outside the United States. Therefore, changes in the value of the U.S. dollar against other currencies will affect our revenue, income from operations, net income and the value of balance sheet items originally denominated in other currencies. There is no guarantee that our financial results will not be adversely affected by currency exchange rate fluctuations.

Our use and reliance upon research and development resources in global locations may expose us to unanticipated costs and/or liabilities.

We have research and development offices in various global locations, including the United States, Canada, India, Israel and China. Our development efforts and other operations in these locations could involve significant risks, including, among others, difficulty hiring and retaining appropriate engineering and management resources due to intense competition for such resources and resulting wage inflation; knowledge transfer related to our technology and resulting exposure to misappropriation of intellectual property or information that is proprietary to us, our customers and other third parties; and heightened exposure to changes in economic, security and global political conditions.

Difficulties resulting from the factors noted above and other risks related to our global operations could increase our expenses, impair our development efforts, harm our competitive position and damage our reputation.

Risks Related to Intellectual Property

Our business could be jeopardized if we are unable to protect our intellectual property. Additionally, in some jurisdictions, our rights may not be as strong as those we currently enjoy in the United States.

We rely on a combination of security countermeasures within our deployed products, as well as patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws and contractual restrictions on disclosure to protect our intellectual property rights. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy or otherwise misappropriate our products or technology. Monitoring unauthorized use of our products is difficult and we cannot be certain that the steps we have taken will prevent unauthorized use of our technology, particularly in foreign countries where the laws may not protect our proprietary rights as fully as in the United States. The legal systems of many foreign countries do not protect or honor intellectual property rights to the same extent as the legal system of the United States. It may be very difficult, time-consuming and costly for us to attempt to enforce our intellectual property rights, especially in these foreign jurisdictions. If competitors are able to use our technology, our ability to compete effectively could be harmed, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

If we are unable to obtain necessary licenses or on-going maintenance and support of third-party technology at acceptable prices, on acceptable terms, or at all, it could harm our operating results or business.

We have incorporated third-party licensed technology, including open source software, into our current products. From time to time, we may be required to license additional technology from third parties to develop new products or product enhancements. Third-party licenses and on-going maintenance and support may not be available or continue to be available to us on commercially reasonable terms or may be available to us but only at significantly escalated pricing. Additionally, we may not be able to replace the functionality provided by third-party software currently offered with our products if that software becomes obsolete, defective or incompatible with future versions of our products or is not adequately maintained or updated. If we are unable to maintain or re-license any third-party licenses required in our current products or obtain any new third-party licenses to develop new products and product enhancements, or in the case of any defects in these third-party software products, we could be required to obtain substitute technology of lower quality or performance standards or at greater cost, and we may be delayed or prevented from making these products or enhancements, any of which could seriously harm our sales and the competitiveness of our products unless and until we can secure an alternative source.

A breach of the security of our information systems or those of our third-party providers could adversely affect our operating results.

We rely upon our information systems and, in certain circumstances, those of our third-party providers, such as vendors, consultants and contract manufacturers, to protect our sensitive or proprietary information and information of or about our customers, to develop and provide our products and services to customers, and to otherwise operate our business. Our information systems and those of our third-party providers are vulnerable to threats such as computer hacking, cyber-terrorism or other unauthorized activity that may result in third party access to or modification, corruption or deletion of our or our customers' sensitive or proprietary information or other disruptions to our business. Such cyberattacks and other cyber incidents are occurring more frequently, are constantly evolving, are becoming more sophisticated and can take many forms. For example, we are aware of a third party gaining unauthorized access to a portion of our network in the first quarter of 2021, although we do not believe they were able to obtain any material internal or customer data or otherwise disrupt our information
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systems before the intrusion was detected and remediated. While we believe that we leverage appropriate detection and prevention systems and services and that we focus on continuous improvement based upon the latest attack vectors in the industry, we cannot guarantee that there will never be any information technology system failures, including future breaches of our or our third-party providers' data security measures through a cyberattack, other cyber incident or otherwise, or the theft or loss of laptops, other mobile devices or electronic records used to back up our systems or our third-party providers' systems, which could result in a disclosure of customer, employee, or our information or otherwise disrupt our ability to function in the normal course of business by potentially causing, among other things, delays in the fulfillment or cancellation of customer orders or disruptions in the manufacture or shipment of products or delivery of services, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results.

Additionally, the compromise of our information systems, or the information systems of our third party providers and our customers, could lead to unauthorized tampering with our products. Unauthorized tampering may result in, among other things, the disruption of our customers' businesses, errors or defects occurring in the software due to such unauthorized tampering, and our products not operating as expected after such unauthorized tampering. These types of security breaches could also create exposure to lawsuits, regulatory investigations, and increased legal liability. As a provider of secure real-time communications solutions, the reputational harm of any actual or perceived breach, compromise, defect or error relating to the security of our information systems and the products and services we provide may result in substantial harm to our reputation, even if the legal or regulatory impact is minimal. In addition, the costs to remediate any cyberattack could be significant. Such consequences could be exacerbated if we or our third-party providers are unable to adequately recover critical systems in a timely manner following a systems failure. Our insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses related to cyberattacks.

Risks Related to Regulation

Risks associated with data privacy issues, including evolving laws, regulations and associated compliance efforts, may adversely impact our business and financial results.

Legislation in various countries around the world with regard to cybersecurity, privacy and data protection is rapidly expanding and creating a complex compliance environment. We are subject to many privacy and data protection laws and regulations in the U.S. and around the world, some of which place restrictions on our ability to process personal data across our business. For example, the General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”) has caused more stringent data protection requirements in the European Union. The GDPR imposes onerous accountability obligations requiring data controllers and processors to maintain a record of their data processing and implement policies as part of its mandated privacy governance framework. It also requires data controllers to be transparent and disclose to data subjects how their personal information is to be used; imposes limitations on retention of personal data; introduces mandatory data breach notification requirements; and sets higher standards for data controllers to demonstrate that they have obtained valid consent for certain data processing activities. We are subject to the supervision of local data protection authorities in those E.U. jurisdictions where we are established or otherwise subject to the GDPR. Certain breaches of the GDPR requirements could result in substantial fines. In addition to the foregoing, a breach of the GDPR could result in regulatory investigations, reputational damage, orders to cease/change our use of data, enforcement notices, as well potential civil claims including class action type litigation where individuals suffered harm.

Similarly, California and other states have enacted privacy laws that purport to create individual privacy rights for consumers and increase the privacy and security obligations of entities handling certain personal data. These laws also provide for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches that is expected to increase data breach litigation. These laws may increase our compliance costs and potential liability. Many similar laws have been proposed at the federal level and in the other states. Any liability from our failure to comply with the requirements of these laws could adversely affect our financial condition.

We have invested, and continue to invest, human and technology resources in our GDPR compliance efforts and our data privacy compliance efforts. These compliance efforts may be time-intensive and costly. Despite those efforts, there is a risk that we may be subject to fines and penalties, litigation and reputational harm if we fail to protect the privacy of third party data or comply with the applicable regimes.

Failure to comply with the FCPA or the UKBA could subject us to significant civil or criminal penalties.

We earn a significant portion of our total revenue from international sales generated through our foreign direct and indirect operations. As a result, we are subject to the FCPA and the UKBA, which prohibit bribery in the conduct of business. The FCPA generally prohibits U.S. companies and their intermediaries from making corrupt payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or keeping business or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment and requires companies to maintain adequate record-keeping and internal accounting practices to accurately reflect the transactions of the company. The UKBA is much broader and prohibits all bribery, in both the public and private sectors. Under the FCPA and the UKBA, U.S. companies, their subsidiaries, employees, senior officers and/or directors may be held liable for actions taken by strategic or
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local partners or representatives. In addition, the U.S. government or the U.K. government, as applicable, may seek to hold us liable for successor liability violations committed by companies we have acquired or may in the future acquire. If we or our intermediaries fail to comply with the requirements of the FCPA and the UKBA, governmental authorities in the United States and the United Kingdom, as applicable, could seek to impose civil and/or criminal penalties, which could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, results of operations and the trading price of our common stock.

We are subject to governmental export and import controls that could subject us to liability, require a license from the U.S. government or impair our ability to compete in international markets.

Certain of our products with encryption technology are subject to export controls and may be exported only with the required level of export license or through an export license exception. Under these laws and regulations, we are responsible for obtaining all necessary licenses or other approvals, if required, for exports. If we were to fail to comply with existing or future export licensing, customs regulations, economic sanctions and other laws, we could be subject to substantial civil and criminal penalties, including fines and incarceration for responsible employees and managers, and the possible loss of export or import privileges. Similarly, various countries regulate the import of certain encryption technology and have enacted laws that could limit our ability to distribute our products or our customers' ability to implement our products in those countries.

In addition, if our distributors fail to obtain appropriate import, export or re-export licenses or permits, we may also be adversely affected through reputational harm and penalties. Obtaining export licenses can be difficult and time-consuming, and in some cases a license may not be available on a timely basis or at all. Changes in import/export regulations could also lead to delays in new product introductions or limit our ability to sell existing or future products in certain locations, which could adversely impact our business.

Export control laws and economic sanctions prohibit the shipment of certain products to embargoed or sanctioned countries, governments and persons, including Russia as a result of its military action against Ukraine. We cannot assure that a violation of these regulations will not occur, whether knowingly or inadvertently. Any such shipment could have negative consequences including government investigations, penalties, fines, civil and criminal sanctions, and reputational harm.

Regulation of the telecommunications industry, or changes in governmental regulation, interpretation or legislative reform could harm our operating results and future prospects.

The telecommunications industry is highly regulated and our business and financial condition could be adversely affected by changes in the regulations relating to the telecommunications industry. Currently, there are few laws or regulations that apply directly to access to or delivery of voice services on IP networks. We could be adversely affected by regulation of IP networks and commerce in any country where we operate, including the United States. Such regulations could include matters such as voice over the Internet or using Internet protocol, encryption technology, and access charges for service providers. The adoption of such regulations could decrease demand for our products, and at the same time increase the cost of selling our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Indebtedness and Accounting Matters

The terms of our credit agreement could adversely affect our operating flexibility and pose risks of default, which would negatively impact our liquidity and operations.

Our Senior Secured Credit Facilities Credit Agreement, as amended, provides $500 million of commitments, comprised of a $400 million term loan (the “2020 Loan Facility”) and a $100 million revolving facility (the “2020 Revolving Credit Facility” and, together with the 2020 Loan Facility, the "2020 Credit Facility"). Terms in the 2020 Credit Facility impose limitations on our ability to, among other things, incur additional indebtedness, create liens, make acquisitions or engage in mergers, enter into transactions with affiliates, dispose of assets, make certain investments and amend or repay certain junior debt. These terms could adversely affect our operating flexibility and pose risks of default which would negatively impact our liquidity and operations. In addition, we may not be able to refinance our debt or obtain additional financing on favorable terms, or at all.

In addition, we are required to meet certain financial covenants customer for financings of this type, including a minimum Consolidated Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio and a maximum Consolidated Net Leverage Ratio (each as defined in the 2020 Credit Agreement) which are tested on a quarterly basis. The maximum Consolidated Net Leverage Ratio covenant uses our EBITDA (calculated in accordance with the 2020 Credit Agreement) for the last 12 months (as of the testing date) to determine compliance. While we remain in compliance with this covenant, sequential decreases in our EBITDA over the 12-month period compared to previous 12-month periods used for the calculation, as we experienced in the second half of 2021 and that may continue into the first quarter of 2022, could impact our ability to continue to satisfy this requirement in future periods if we are unable to obtain a waiver or further amendment to the terms of the covenant, or otherwise reduce our debt. Our failure to comply with these covenants may result in the declaration of an event of default, which could cause us to be unable to borrow
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under the credit facility or result in the acceleration of the maturity of indebtedness outstanding under the 2020 Credit Facility at such time.

If we are prevented from borrowing or if we are unable to extend, renew or replace the credit facilities under the 2020 Credit Facility by the maturity dates, on favorable terms, or at all, this could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and cause our business, operations and financial condition to suffer. In addition, we may not have sufficient funds available for repayment or we may not have the ability to borrow or obtain sufficient funds to replace the indebtedness on terms acceptable to us, or at all.

The United Kingdom's Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates the London Inter-bank Offered Rate ("LIBOR"), has announced that it intends to stop encouraging or requiring banks to submit LIBOR rates after 2023, and it is unclear if LIBOR will cease to exist or if new methods of calculating LIBOR will evolve. We have the option under the 2020 Credit Facility to determine our interest rate that includes either the LIBOR rate or the base rate. While we also have the ability under our current credit facility to switch to a new or alternative benchmark rate, if LIBOR ceases to exist or the methods of calculating LIBOR change from their current form, we may no longer have the ability to elect the LIBOR rate option under the 2020 Credit Facility, and our current or future indebtedness may be adversely affected. This could impact our interest costs and our ability to borrow additional funds under the 2020 Credit Facility.

We cannot be sure that our current cash and available borrowings under our 2020 Credit Facility will be sufficient to meet our future needs. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flows in the future, and if availability under our current facility is not sufficient to support our operations, we may need to refinance our debt or obtain additional financing. We may not be able to refinance our debt or obtain additional financing on favorable terms or at all.

The value of the securities received in connection with the sale of our cloud-based enterprise communications service is based on the ongoing operations of the acquiring company and is volatile. Quarterly fluctuations in price can significantly impact our financial results.

In connection with our sale of the Kandy Communications Business to AVCT, we received 43,778 units of AVCT securities (the "AVCT Units"), with each AVCT Unit consisting of (1) $1,000 in principal amount of AVCT's Series A-1 convertible debentures (the "Debentures"); and (ii) one warrant to purchase 100 shares of AVCT common stock, $0.0001 par value (the "Warrants. In the third quarter of 2021, the Debentures were converted, pursuant to their terms, into shares of AVCT common stock (the "AVCT Shares"). Since AVCT's common stock is publicly traded on NASDAQ, under U.S. GAAP ("GAAP"), we elected the fair value option to record our investment in AVCT, under which we value the AVCT Shares on our balance sheet based on the trading price of the AVCT common stock. Such trading price is also used to value the Warrants on an if-converted basis. We are also required under GAAP to revalue and mark to market the value of the AVCT Shares and Warrants on a quarterly basis, with any changes in value reflected in our statements of operations and, therefore, impacting our earnings. AVCT's stock price on NASDAQ has been volatile, with the closing price ranging from $0.85 to $9.26 during the year ended December 31, 2021. As a result, our financial statements may reflect significant swings in the value of the AVCT Shares and Warrants held on our balance sheet, which could have a material impact on our financial results, even though such changes in value would not reflect our current operating business.

We continue to rely on AVCT for the provision of products and services to a number of customers we jointly share. AVCT reported that as of September 30, 2021 (the last period for which AVCT has reported financial results as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K), AVCT's current liabilities exceeded its current assets by $26.6 million. AVCT has announced a number of initiatives designed to increase its liquidity, including a proposed sale of its Computex business, and AVCT believes that cash from continuing operations, taken together with these initiatives, will be sufficient to continue to fund its operations. However, if such activities are not successful, AVCT may be required to take other actions that could materially negatively affect the value of our investment in AVCT. Disruptions in AVCT's operations could also result in claims by our customers for failure to satisfy contractual service requirements and/or require us to find alternative solutions in order to satisfy our customer obligations.

If our goodwill or intangible assets become impaired, we may be required to record a significant charge to earnings.

As of December 31, 2021, we had $300.9 million of goodwill and $350.7 million of intangible assets. Goodwill is tested annually for impairment and, along with our intangible assets, is also reviewed for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Based on the results of our recently completed impairment test, we determined that the carrying value of our IP Optical Networks segment exceeded its fair value and accordingly, we recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $116.0 million, which had a material impact on both our net loss and loss per share for the year ended December 31, 2021. Based on the results of our 2019 annual impairment test, we determined that our carrying value for goodwill exceeded our fair value and accordingly, we recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $164.3 million, which had a material impact on both our net loss and loss per share for the year ended December 31, 2019. Factors that
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may be considered a change in circumstances indicating that the carrying value of our goodwill or intangible assets may not be recoverable include significant underperformance relative to plan or long-term projections, strategic changes in business strategy, significant negative industry or economic trends, significant change in circumstances relative to a large customer, significant decline in our stock price for a sustained period and decline in our market capitalization to below net book value. Any additional material impairment of goodwill or intangible assets could adversely affect our results of operations.

If we fail to maintain appropriate internal controls in the future, we may not be able to report our financial results accurately, which may adversely affect our stock price and our business.

Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the related regulations require our management to report on, and our independent registered public accounting firm to attest to, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. We have committed and will be required to continue to commit significant financial and managerial resources in order to comply with these requirements.

Further, we are required to integrate ECI and other acquired businesses into our system of disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. As may be the case with other companies we acquire, prior to the ECI Acquisition, ECI was not required to implement or maintain the disclosure controls and procedures or internal control over financial reporting that are required of public companies. We cannot provide assurance as to the effectiveness of those integrations.

Internal control over financial reporting has inherent limitations, including human error, the possibility that controls could be circumvented or become inadequate because of changed conditions, and fraud. If we are unable to maintain effective internal controls, we may not have adequate or timely financial information, and we may be unable to meet our reporting obligations as a publicly traded company or comply with the requirements of the SEC or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. This could result in a restatement of our financial statements, the imposition of sanctions, or investigation by regulatory authorities, and could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information. Any such consequence or other negative effect of our inability to meet our reporting requirements or comply with legal and regulatory requirements, as well as any disclosure of an accounting, reporting or control issue, could adversely affect the trading price of our common stock and our business.

General Risk Factors

Litigation and government investigations could result in significant legal expenses and settlement payments, fines or damage awards.

From time to time, we are subject to litigation regarding intellectual property rights or other claims and have indemnification clauses in most of our customer contracts that may require us to indemnify customers against similar claims. We have also been named as a defendant in securities class action and stockholder derivative lawsuits and have also been subject to investigations by the government. We are generally obliged, to the extent permitted by law, to indemnify our current and former directors and officers who are named as defendants in these lawsuits. Defending against litigation or government investigation may require significant attention and resources of management. Regardless of the outcome, such litigation or investigation could result in significant legal expenses. At this time, it is not possible to predict the outcome of the ongoing lawsuits, including whether or not any proceedings will continue, and when or how these matters will be resolved or whether we will ultimately receive, and in what sum, amounts previously awarded as a result of these proceedings. Regardless of whether we are ultimately successful in these lawsuits, we will likely elect to continue to incur substantial legal fees in connection with these matters.

If the defenses we claim in our material litigation matters are ultimately unsuccessful, or if we are unable to achieve a favorable settlement with an adverse party or a government agency, we could be liable for large settlement payments, damage awards or fines that could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Our stock price has been and may continue to be volatile.

Our common stock price has experienced substantial volatility in the past and may remain volatile in the future. Volatility in our stock price can arise as a result of a number of the factors discussed in this “Risk Factors” section. During 2021, our closing stock price ranged from a high of $11.14 per share to a low of $5.23 per share. The stock market has experienced significant price and volume fluctuation with such volatility often unrelated to the operating performance of these companies. Actual or perceived divergence between our actual results and our forward-looking guidance for such results, the published expectations of investment analysts, or the expectations of the market generally, can cause significant swings in our stock price. Our stock price can also be affected by market conditions in our industry as well as announcements that we, our competitors, vendors or our customers may make. These may include announcements by us or our competitors of financial results or changes in estimated financial results, technological innovations, the gain or loss of customers, or other strategic initiatives.
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These and other factors affecting global economic conditions or financial markets may materially adversely affect the market price of our common stock in the future.

We are party to a stockholders’ agreement with certain stockholders which provides such stockholders with certain rights that may differ from the rights of our other stockholders.

In connection with the ECI Acquisition, we entered into a First Amended and Restated Stockholders Agreement (the “Stockholders Agreement”) with JPMC Heritage Parent LLC, Heritage PE (OEP) III, L.P. (together with JPMC, the “JPM Stockholders”), and ECI Holding (Hungary) Kft (“Swarth”). The Stockholders Agreement sets forth certain arrangements and contains various provisions relating to board size, board representation, standstill restrictions and transfer restrictions as further described therein, including the right of the JPM Stockholders and Swarth to each designate up to three directors for nomination to our nine-member board of directors, subject to the JPM Stockholders and Swarth maintaining certain levels of beneficial ownership of our common stock. Therefore, the JPM Stockholders and Swarth will be able to exert significant influence over matters requiring board approval, and our stockholders other than the JPM Stockholders and Swarth will have limited or no ability to influence the outcome of certain key transactions. The interests of the parties to the Stockholders Agreement may differ from those of other holders of our common stock.

Additionally, the Company entered into a First Amended and Restated Registration Rights Agreement with the JPM Stockholders and Swarth. The JPM Stockholders and Swarth collectively own approximately 52% of our common stock as of December 31, 2021, and may decide to sell their shares in bulk or from time to time, except as provided under the Stockholders Agreement, which timing we cannot control. The sale of shares by the JPM Stockholders and/or Swarth may increase the volatility of our stock price, and our stock price could decline as a result.

Delaware law and our charter documents contain provisions that could discourage or prevent a potential takeover, even if such a transaction would be beneficial to our stockholders.

Some provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our amended and restated by-laws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, may discourage, delay or prevent a merger or acquisition that may be deemed undesirable by our Board of Directors but that a stockholder may consider favorable. These include provisions, among others,

authorizing the Board of Directors to issue shares of preferred stock;
limiting the persons who may call special meetings of stockholders;
prohibiting stockholder actions by written consent;
permitting the Board of Directors to increase the size of the Board and to fill vacancies;
requiring a super-majority vote of our stockholders to amend our amended and restated by-laws and certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation; and
establishing advance notice requirements for nominations for election to the Board of Directors or for proposing matters that can be acted on by stockholders at stockholder meetings.

As a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to provisions of Delaware law, including Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation law, which prevents some stockholders holding more than 15% of our outstanding common stock from engaging in certain business combinations without approval of the holders of substantially all of our outstanding common stock.

These provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our amended and restated by-laws or Delaware law could have the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control that some stockholders may consider beneficial and therefore could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.


Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.


Item 2. Properties

During 2019, we initiated a plan to consolidate and reduce the number of our facilities worldwide. This included plans to provide a new customer experience center for product demonstration and training, relocate and consolidate our laboratories, server farms and Cloud service infrastructure and condense research and development, sales, marketing, business operations and administrative functions into our new Plano campus. In February 2021, we relocated our corporate headquarters to our new
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facility in Plano, Texas.

We also lease smaller (under 50,000 square feet) office space in various countries around the world for sales, marketing, research and development/engineering, and customer services and support staff, as well as for warehouse purposes. We are exiting certain of these facilities. We believe our remaining facilities will be adequate for our current needs and that suitable additional space will be available as needed.

As of December 31, 2021, we maintained the following principal facilities:
LocationPrincipal useLease expiration
Plano, TexasCorporate headquarters, sales, marketing, research and development/engineering, customer support, general and administrativeSeptember 2032
Plano, Texas (a)Research and development/engineering, customer supportFebruary 2022
Westford, MassachusettsResearch and development, customer support, general and administrativeFebruary 2022
Research Triangle Park, North CarolinaResearch and development/engineering, sales, customer support, general and administrativeApril 2027
Ottawa, Canada (b)Research and development/engineering, customer support, general and administrativeDecember 2029
Petah Tikva, Israel (c)Research and development/engineering, sales, serviceOctober 2023
Petah Tikva, Israel (b)Service, research and development/engineering, general and administrativeOctober 2023
Bangalore, IndiaResearch and development/engineering, customer support, general and administrativeOctober 2024
Bangalore, IndiaResearch and development/engineering, customer support, general and administrativeDecember 2023

(a) The Company's relocation of this facility's operations to the Plano corporate headquarters facility was completed in the first quarter of 2021.
(b) A portion of this facility was not in use at December 31, 2021 and is currently being subleased as part of a restructuring initiative.
(c) A portion of this facility was not in use at December 31, 2021; a portion of this unused space is currently being subleased as part of a restructuring initiative that covers the entire unused space.


Item 3. Legal Proceedings

We are subject to legal proceedings and claims that have not been fully resolved and that have arisen in the ordinary course of business. Our material legal proceedings are described in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Note 26, "Commitments and Contingencies" under the heading "Contingencies".

The outcome of litigation is inherently uncertain. If one or more legal matters were resolved against the Company in a reporting period for amounts above management's expectations, our financial condition and operating results for that reporting period could be materially adversely affected. We settled certain matters during the fourth quarter of 2021 that did not individually or in the aggregate have a material impact on our financial condition or operating results.


Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information

Effective November 29, 2017, our common stock was quoted on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "RBBN." Our common stock began publicly trading on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on October 30, 2017 under the symbol "SONS," following the merger of Sonus Networks, Inc. and GENBAND.

Holders

At March 8, 2022, there were approximately 382 holders of record of our common stock.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

None.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

The following table summarizes repurchases of our common stock during the fourth quarter of 2021:
PeriodTotal Number
of Shares
Purchased (1)
Average
Price Paid
per Share
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of
Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs
Approximate Dollar
Value of Shares that May
Yet be Purchased Under
the Plans or Programs
October 1, 2021 to October 31, 20214,522 $6.35 — $— 
November 1, 2021 to November 30, 20217,873 $6.06 — $— 
December 1, 2021 to December 31, 202171,009 $5.75 — $— 
Total83,404 $5.81 — $— 

(1) Upon vesting of restricted stock awards, certain of our employees may return to us a portion of the newly vested shares to satisfy the tax withholding obligations that arise in connection with such vesting. During the fourth quarter of 2021, 83,404 shares of restricted stock were returned to us by employees to satisfy tax withholding obligations arising in connection with vesting of restricted stock, which shares are included in this column.

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Performance Graph

The following performance graph compares the cumulative total return to stockholders for our common stock for the period from October 30, 2017 (the date Ribbon's common stock began trading on Nasdaq) through December 31, 2021 with the cumulative total return over the same period on the Nasdaq Composite Index, the Nasdaq Telecommunications Index and the Russell 2000. The comparison assumes an investment of $100 on October 30, 2017 in our common stock and in each of the indices and, in each case, assumes reinvestment of all dividends, if any. The performance shown is not necessarily indicative of future performance.

This graph is not deemed to be "filed" with the SEC or subject to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), and should not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our prior or subsequent filings under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

https://cdn.kscope.io/8b57c5f67d67a52621fb1f1985f199ca-rbbn-20211231_g1.jpg

 October 30,
2017
December 31,
2017
December 31,
2018
December 31,
2019
December 31,
2020
December 31,
2021
Ribbon Communications Inc.$100.00 $92.13 $57.45 $36.95 $78.19 $72.11 
Nasdaq Composite$100.00 $102.83 $99.91 $136.58 $197.92 $241.82 
Russell 2000$100.00 $102.47 $91.18 $114.45 $137.30 $157.65 
Nasdaq Telecommunications$100.00 $108.55 $99.94 $126.88 $153.83 $161.29 

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Item 6. Reserved

[Reserved]


Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Overview

We are a leading global provider of communications technology to service providers and enterprises. We provide a broad range of software and high-performance hardware products, solutions and services that enable the secure delivery of data and voice communications for residential consumers and for small, medium and large enterprises and industry verticals such as finance, education, government, utilities and transportation. Our mission is to create a recognized global technology leader providing cloud-centric solutions that enable the secure exchange of information, with unparalleled scale, performance and elasticity. Headquartered in Plano, Texas, we have a global presence with research and development and/or sales and support locations in over thirty-five countries around the world.

Impact of COVID-19 on Our Business

In 2020, a novel strain of the coronavirus (COVID-19) was declared by the World Health Organization to be a global pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative effect on the global economy, disrupting the various manufacturing, commodity and financial markets and increasing volatility, and has impeded global supply chains, including that of our IP Optical Networks operating segment. Continued dampened global economic conditions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in areas experiencing slower vaccine rollout, such as Australia and India, may cause our customers to restrict spending or delay purchases for an indeterminate period of time and consequently cause our revenues to decline. In addition, our ability to deliver our solutions as agreed upon with our customers depends on the ability of our global contract manufacturers, vendors, licensors and other business partners to deliver products or perform services we have procured from them. While, to date, we have not experienced material issues, if the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic impairs the ability of our business partners to support us on a timely basis, or negatively impacts the demand for our customers' other products and services, our ability to perform our customer contracts as well as the demand for our solutions may suffer. In addition, disruptions from the COVID-19 pandemic could include, and with respect to our IP Optical Networks operating segment have included, disruption of logistics necessary to import, export and deliver our solutions. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to limit in some locations, including India, the ability of our employees to perform their work due to illness caused by the pandemic or local, state or federal orders requiring employees to remain at home. The degree to which the COVID-19 pandemic ultimately impacts our business, financial position and results of operations will depend on future developments beyond our control, including the effectiveness and timing of any vaccines, the frequency and duration of future waves of infection, the effectiveness and timing of any vaccines, the extent of actions to contain or treat the virus, how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions can resume, and the severity and duration of the global economic downturn that results from the pandemic.

As a response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we have continued to implement plans to manage our costs. We have significantly reduced travel and marketing expenses except where necessary to meet customer or regulatory needs and acted to limit discretionary spending. To the extent the business disruption continues for an extended period, additional cost management actions will be considered. Any future asset impairment charges, increases in the allowance for doubtful accounts or restructuring charges could be more likely and will be dependent on the severity and duration of this crisis.

Presentation

Unless otherwise noted, all financial amounts, excluding tabular information, in this MD&A are rounded to the nearest million dollar amount, and all percentages, excluding tabular information, are rounded to the nearest percentage point.

Reclassifications

In 2021, we reclassified amounts recorded for amortization of certain acquired intangible assets in prior presentations from Total operating expenses under the caption "Amortization of acquired intangible assets" to Total cost of revenue under the caption "Amortization of acquired technology" in the consolidated statements of operations. Our management believes this presentation aids in the comparability of our financial statements to industry peers. These reclassifications did not impact our operating income (loss), net income (loss) or earnings (loss) per share for any historical periods. These reclassifications also did not impact our consolidated balance sheets or consolidated statements of cash flows.
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These reclassifications resulted in $42.3 million recorded to Amortization of acquired technology within Total cost of revenue and a $42.3 million decrease to Amortization of acquired intangible assets within Total operating expenses in the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase to Total cost of revenue decreased our gross profit as a percentage of revenue ("gross margin") by approximately five percentage points.

These reclassifications resulted in $37.6 million recorded to Amortization of acquired technology within Total cost of revenue and a $37.6 million decrease to Amortization of acquired intangible assets within Total operating expenses in the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase to Total cost of revenue decreased our gross margin by approximately seven percentage points.

New Restructuring Initiative

On February 14, 2022, our Board of Directors approved a strategic restructuring program (the "2022 Restructuring Plan") to streamline the Company's operations in order to support the Company's investment in critical growth areas. The 2022 Restructuring Plan is expected to include, among other things, charges related to a consolidation of facilities and a workforce reduction. Any potential positions eliminated in countries outside the United States will be subject to local law and consultation requirements.

We currently expect to record approximately $20 million of restructuring and related expense associated with the 2022 Restructuring Plan, including approximately $6 million related to employee severance arrangements and approximately $14 million related to the facilities consolidation. We expect that the 2022 Restructuring Plan will be substantially completed in 2022.

Business Acquisitions

ECI Telecom Group Ltd.

On March 3, 2020 (the "ECI Acquisition Date"), we completed the acquisition of ECI Telecom Group Ltd. ("ECI") in accordance with the terms of the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of November 14, 2019, by and among Ribbon, an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Ribbon ("Merger Sub"), Ribbon Communications Israel Ltd., ECI, and ECI Holding (Hungary) Kft, pursuant to which Merger Sub merged with and into ECI, with ECI surviving such merger as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ribbon (the "ECI Acquisition"). Prior to the ECI Acquisition Date, ECI was a privately-held global provider of end-to-end packet-optical transport and software-defined networking ("SDN") and network function virtualization ("NFV") solutions for service providers, enterprises and data center operators. Ribbon believes the ECI Acquisition positions the Company for growth and enhances its competitive strengths by expanding its product portfolio beyond solutions primarily supporting voice applications to include data applications and optical networking.

As consideration for the ECI Acquisition, we issued the ECI shareholders and certain others 32.5 million shares of Ribbon common stock with a fair value of $108.6 million (the "Stock Consideration") and paid $322.5 million of cash, comprised of $183.3 million to repay ECI's outstanding debt, including both principal and interest, and $139.2 million paid to ECI's selling shareholders (the "Cash Consideration"). In addition, ECI shareholders received $33.4 million from the sale of certain of ECI's real estate assets. Cash Consideration was financed through cash on hand and committed debt financing consisting of a new $400 million term loan facility and new $100 million revolving credit facility, which was undrawn at the ECI Acquisition Date. The ECI Acquisition has been accounted for as a business combination and the financial results of ECI have been included in our consolidated financial statements for the periods subsequent to the ECI Acquisition Date.

Anova Data, Inc.

On February 28, 2019 (the "Anova Acquisition Date"), we acquired the business and technology assets of Anova Data, Inc. ("Anova"), a private company headquartered in Westford, Massachusetts (the "Anova Acquisition"). Anova is a provider of advanced analytics solutions and its next generation products provide a cloud-native, streaming analytics platform for network and subscriber optimization and monetization. The Company believes that the Anova Acquisition will reinforce and extend Ribbon's strategy to expand into network optimization, security and data monetization via big data analytics and machine learning.

As consideration for the Anova Acquisition, we issued 2.9 million shares of our common stock with a fair value of $15.2 million to Anova's sellers and equity holders on the Anova Acquisition Date and held back an additional 330,000 shares of our common stock with a fair value of $1.7 million (the "Deferred Purchase Consideration"), of which 316,551 shares were issued
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after post-closing adjustments on March 4, 2020. The Deferred Purchase Consideration was included as a component of Accrued expenses and other in our consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2019. The Anova Acquisition has been accounted for as a business combination and the financial results of Anova have been included in our consolidated financial statements for the periods subsequent to the Anova Acquisition Date.

Sale of Kandy Communications Business and Investment in AVCT

On December 1, 2020 (the "Kandy Sale Date"), we completed the sale of our Kandy Communications Business to American Virtual Cloud Technologies, Inc. ("AVCT"). AVCT purchased the assets and assumed certain liabilities associated with the Kandy Communications Business, as well as all of the outstanding interests in Kandy Communications LLC, our subsidiary (the "Kandy Sale"). The assets acquired and liabilities assumed by AVCT in connection with the Kandy Sale were primarily comprised of accounts receivable, property and equipment, trade accounts payable and employee-related accruals.

As consideration, AVCT paid us $45.0 million, subject to certain adjustments, in the form of units of AVCT's securities (the "AVCT Units"), with each AVCT Unit consisting of: $1,000 in principal amount of AVCT’s Series A-1 convertible debentures (the “Debentures”); and (ii) one warrant to purchase 100 shares of AVCT common stock, $0.0001 par value (the “Warrants”), as consideration for the Kandy Sale. We received 43,778 AVCT Units as consideration on the Kandy Sale Date.

The Debentures bore interest at a rate of 10% per annum, which was being added to the principal amount of the Debentures. The entire principal amount of each Debenture, together with accrued and unpaid interest thereon, was due and payable on the earlier of the May 1, 2023 maturity date or the occurrence of a Change in Control as defined in the definitive purchase agreement, as amended (the "Amended Kandy Agreement"). Each Debenture was convertible, in whole or in part, at any time at our option into that number of shares of AVCT common stock, calculated by dividing the principal amount being converted, together with all accrued and unpaid interest thereon, by the applicable conversion price, which initially per share was $3.45. The Debentures were subject to mandatory conversion if the AVCT stock price was at or above $6.00 per share for 40 trading days in any 60 consecutive trading day period, subject to the satisfaction of certain other conditions. The conversion price was subject to customary adjustments including, but not limited to, stock dividends, stock splits and reclassifications. As of February 19, 2021, the stock price had traded above $6.00 for 40 days within a 60 consecutive trading day period, and accordingly, on September 8, 2021 (the "Debenture Conversion Date") upon the completion of customary regulatory filings by AVCT, the Debentures were converted into 13,700,421 shares of AVCT common stock (the "Debenture Shares").

The Warrants were independent of the Debentures and entitle us to purchase 4,377,800 shares of AVCT common stock at an exercise price of $0.01 per share. The Warrants were immediately exercisable on the Kandy Sale Date and expire on December 1, 2025. We had not exercised any of the Warrants as of December 31, 2021. We were also subject to a lock-up provision which limited our ability to sell any shares of the AVCT common stock underlying the AVCT Units prior to June 1, 2021 (the "Lock-Up Period"), except in certain transactions.

We determined that the AVCT Units had a fair value of $84.9 million at the Kandy Sale Date, comprised of the Debentures with a fair value of $66.3 million and the Warrants with a fair value of $18.6 million. The value of the net assets sold to AVCT totaled $1.3 million, resulting in a gain on the sale of $83.6 million. We calculated the fair value of the Debentures using a Lattice-based valuation approach, which utilizes a binomial tree to model the different paths the price of AVCT's common stock might take over the Debentures' life by using assumptions regarding the stock price volatility and risk-free interest rate. These results were then used to calculate the fair value of the Debentures at each measurement date prior to the Debenture Conversion Date. We used the Black-Scholes valuation model for estimating the fair value of the Warrants at each measurement date. The fair value of the Warrants was affected by AVCT's stock price as well as valuation assumptions, including the volatility of AVCT's stock price, expected term of the option, risk-free interest rate and expected dividends. Both the Lattice and Black-Scholes valuation models are based on available market data, giving consideration to all of the rights and obligations of each instrument and precluding the use of "blockage" discounts or premiums in determining the fair value of a large block of financial instruments. After the expiration of the Lock-Up Period and prior to the Debenture Conversion Date, we valued the AVCT Units at each measurement date by multiplying the closing stock price of AVCT common stock by the number of shares upon conversion of the Debentures and Warrants. At December 31, 2021, we valued the Debenture Shares and Warrants (the "AVCT Investment") by multiplying the closing stock price of AVCT common stock by the number of Debenture Shares and Warrants we held.

At December 31, 2021, the fair value of the AVCT Investment was $43.9 million, comprised of $33.3 million for the Debenture Shares and $10.6 million for the Warrants. We recorded a loss of $74.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2021 arising from the change in their aggregate fair value. This amount is included as a component of Other (expense) income, net, in our consolidated statement of operations. We recorded $3.5 million of interest income in the year ended December 31, 2021, respectively, which was added to the principal amount of the Debentures prior to the Debenture Conversion Date, and
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which is included in Interest expense, net, in our consolidated statement of operations. At December 31, 2020, the fair value of the AVCT Units was $115.2 million. The fair value of the AVCT Investment at December 31, 2021 and the AVCT Units at December 31, 2020 are reported as Investments in our consolidated balance sheets. The AVCT Investment is classified as a Level 1 fair value measurement at December 31, 2021 and the AVCT Units are classified as Level 2 fair value measurements within the fair value hierarchy at December 31, 2020.

We evaluated the nature of our investment in AVCT for the period from the Debenture Conversion Date through December 31, 2021 and determined that it represented an approximate 15% equity interest in AVCT on a diluted basis. Accordingly, we determined that we are not the primary beneficiary of AVCT as we do not have the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the AVCT Investment's economic performance and therefore concluded that we had neither significant influence nor a controlling interest arising from the AVCT Investment.

Litigation Settlement

On April 22, 2019, we and Metaswitch Networks Ltd., Metaswitch Networks Corp and Metaswitch Inc. (collectively, "Metaswitch") agreed to a binding mediator's proposal that resolves the six previously disclosed lawsuits between the Company and Metaswitch (the "Lawsuits"). We and Metaswitch signed a Settlement and Cross-License Agreement on May 29, 2019 (the "Royalty Agreement"). Pursuant to the terms of the Royalty Agreement, Metaswitch agreed to pay us an aggregate amount of $63.0 million, which included cash payments of $37.5 million during the second quarter of 2019 and $25.5 million payable in three installments annually, beginning June 26, 2020, with such installment payments accruing interest at a rate of 4% per year. As part of the Royalty Agreement, we and Metaswitch have (i) released the other from all claims and liabilities; (ii) licensed each party's existing patent portfolio to the other party; and (iii) requested the applicable courts to dismiss the Lawsuits. We received $37.5 million of aggregate payments from Metaswitch in the second quarter of 2019 and recorded notes receivable for future payments of $25.5 million, comprised of $8.5 million in Other current assets and $17.0 million in Other assets in our consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2019. We recorded the $63.0 million gain in Other (expense) income, net, in our consolidated statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2019. We received $37.5 million of aggregate payments from Metaswitch in the second quarter of 2019 and $9.5 million, including $1.0 million of interest, in the second quarter of 2020.

On July 6, 2020, we and Metaswitch signed a First Supplemental Agreement to the Settlement and Cross-License Agreement (the "Supplemental Agreement") under which Metaswitch could elect to repay the outstanding amounts under the Royalty Agreement early in exchange for a reduction of $0.25 million to the outstanding principal, from $17.0 million to $16.75 million, and the payment of no further interest by Metaswitch effective June 26, 2020. We recorded the reduction to the outstanding principal as a reduction to interest income. On July 14, 2020, Metaswitch paid us the remaining outstanding balance of $16.75 million.

Operating Segments

Our chief operating decision maker (the "CODM") is our president and chief executive officer. Effective in the fourth quarter of 2020 and in connection with the ECI Acquisition, our CODM began to assess our performance based on the performance of two separate organizations within Ribbon: the Cloud and Edge operating segment ("Cloud and Edge") and the IP Optical Networks operating segment ("IP Optical Networks"). We previously operated in a single segment, as our CODM made decisions and assessed performance at the company level, and for periods prior to the ECI Acquisition, there are no financial results for IP Optical Networks to report.

Our Cloud and Edge operating segment provides secure and reliable software and hardware products, solutions and services for Voice over Internet Protocol ("VoIP") communications, Voice over Long-Term Evolution ("VoLTE") and Voice Over 5G ("VoNR") communications, and Unified Communications and Collaboration ("UC&C") services to both service provider and enterprise customers. Our Cloud and Edge products are increasingly software-centric and cloud-native for deployment on private, public or hybrid cloud infrastructures, in data centers, on enterprise premises and within service provider networks. Our Cloud and Edge product portfolio consists of our Session Border Controller ("SBC") products and our Network Transformation ("NTR") products.

Our IP Optical Networks operating segment provides high-performance, secure solutions for IP networking and optical transport, supporting wireless networks including 5G, metro and edge aggregation, core networking, data center interconnect, legacy network transformation and transport solutions for wholesale carriers. This portfolio is offered to service provider, enterprise and industry verticals with critical transport network infrastructures including utilities, government, defense, transportation, and education and research.

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Financial Overview

Financial Results

We reported a loss from operations of $117.8 million for 2021 and income from operations of $1.7 million for 2020. We reported a net loss of $177.2 million for 2021 and net income of $88.6 million for 2020.

Our revenue was $845.0 million in 2021, comprised of $556.7 million attributable to Cloud and Edge and $288.3 million attributable to IP Optical Networks. Our revenue was $843.8 million in 2020, comprised of $583.3 million attributable to Cloud and Edge and $260.5 million attributable to IP Optical Networks. Our gross profit was $444.7 million in 2021, comprised of $343.5 million attributable to Cloud and Edge and $101.2 million attributable to IP Optical Networks. Our gross profit was $450.8 million in 2020, comprised of $353.5 million attributable to Cloud and Edge and $97.4 million attributable to IP Optical Networks. Our gross margin was 52.6% in 2021 and 53.4% in 2020. In 2021, our Cloud and Edge gross margin was 61.7% and our IP Optical Networks gross margin was 35.1%. In 2020, our Cloud and Edge gross margin was 60.6% and our IP Optical Networks gross margin was 37.4%.

Our operating expenses were $562.5 million in 2021 and $449.1 million in 2020. Our 2021 operating expenses included $116.0 million for the impairment of goodwill, $28.3 million of amortization of acquired intangible assets, $7.6 million of acquisition-, disposal- and integration-related expense, and $11.7 million of restructuring and related expense. Our 2020 operating expenses included $18.6 million of amortization of acquired intangible assets, $17.2 million of acquisition-, disposal- and integration-related expense, and $16.2 million of restructuring and related expense.

We recorded stock-based compensation expense of $19.4 million in 2021 and $13.9 million in 2020.

See "Results of Operations" in this MD&A for additional discussion of our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020.

Restructuring and Cost Reduction Initiatives

In 2020, we implemented a restructuring plan to eliminate certain positions and redundant facilities, primarily in connection with the ECI Acquisition, to further streamline our global footprint and improve our operations (the "2020 Restructuring Initiative"). In connection with this initiative, we have eliminated duplicate functions arising from the ECI Acquisition in support of our efforts to integrate the two companies. In connection with the 2020 Restructuring Initiative, we recorded restructuring and related expense of $4.7 million and $14.0 million in 2021 and 2020, respectively. The 2021 amount was comprised of $4.6 million for severance and related costs for approximately 60 employees and $0.1 million for variable and other facilities-related costs. The 2020 amount was comprised of $11.5 million for severance and related costs for approximately 190 employees, $2.0 million for variable and other facilities-related costs, and $0.5 million for accelerated amortization of lease assets. We expect these amounts will be fully paid in 2022. We expect to record additional restructuring and related expense approximating $1 million under the 2020 Restructuring Initiative in the aggregate for severance and planned facility consolidations.

In June 2019, we implemented a restructuring plan to further streamline our global footprint, improve our operations and enhance our customer delivery (the "2019 Restructuring Initiative"). The 2019 Restructuring Initiative includes facility consolidations, refinement of our research and development activities, and a reduction in workforce. The facility consolidations under the 2019 Restructuring Initiative (the "Facilities Initiative") include a consolidation of our North Texas sites into a single campus, housing engineering, customer training and support, and administrative functions, as well as a reduction or elimination of certain excess and duplicative facilities worldwide. In addition, we intend to substantially consolidate our global software laboratories and server farms into two lower cost North American sites. We continue to evaluate our properties included in the Facilities Initiative for accelerated amortization and/or right-of-use asset impairment. We expect that the actions under the Facilities Initiative will be completed in 2023.

In connection with the 2019 Restructuring Initiative, we recorded restructuring and related expense of $7.0 million and $2.3 million in 2021 and 2020, respectively. The amount recorded in 2021 was comprised of $5.7 million for variable and other facilities-related costs and $1.3 million of net expense for accelerated amortization of lease assets. The amount for accelerated amortization of lease assets was comprised of $3.4 million of expense and $2.1 million of income related to a lease modification for one of our restructured lease facilities. The amount recorded in 2020 was comprised of $0.5 million for severance and related costs for approximately 5 employees, $1.7 million for variable and other facilities-related costs and $0.1 million for accelerated amortization of lease assets. The amount accrued for severance and related costs was paid in 2021. We estimate that we will record nominal, if any, future expense related to this initiative.
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Accelerated rent amortization is recognized from the date that we commence the plan to fully or partially vacate a facility, for which there is no intent or ability to enter into a sublease, through the final vacate date. We recorded $3.4 million and $0.6 million of expense for accelerated rent amortization in the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. These amounts are included as components of Restructuring and related expense, and reduced our Operating lease right-of-use assets in our consolidated balance sheets at December 31, 2021 and 2020. We continue to evaluate our properties included in the Facilities Initiative for accelerated amortization and/or right-of-use asset impairment. We may incur additional future expense if we are unable to sublease other locations included in the Facilities Initiative.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Management's discussion and analysis of the financial condition and results of operations is based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We base our estimates and judgments on historical experience, knowledge of current conditions and beliefs of what could occur in the future given available information. We consider the following accounting policies to be both those most important to the portrayal of our financial condition and those that require the most subjective judgment. If actual results differ significantly from management's estimates and projections, there could be a material effect on our consolidated financial statements. The significant accounting policies that we believe are the most critical include revenue recognition, the valuation of inventory, debentures and warrants received as sale consideration, warranty accruals, loss contingencies and reserves, stock-based compensation, business combinations, goodwill and intangible assets and accounting for income taxes.

Revenue Recognition. We derive revenue from two primary sources: products and services. Product revenue is generated from sales of our stand-alone software, as well as software with attached hardware that function together to deliver the products' essential functionality. Both software and hardware are also sold on a standalone basis. Services include customer support (software updates and technical support), consulting, design services, installation services and training. A typical contract includes both product and services. Generally, contracts with customers contain multiple performance obligations. For these contracts, we account for individual performance obligations separately if they are distinct. The transaction price is allocated to the separate performance obligations on a relative standalone selling price basis. SSPs are typically estimated based on observable transactions when these services are sold on a standalone basis.

The software licenses typically provide a perpetual right to use our software. We also sell term-based software licenses that expire and Software-as-as-Service ("SaaS")-based software, which are referred to as subscription arrangements. We do not customize our software nor are installation services required, as the customer has a right to utilize internal resources or a third-party service company. The software and hardware are delivered before related services are provided and are functional without professional services or customer support. We have concluded that our software licenses are functional intellectual property that are distinct, as the user can benefit from the software on its own. The product revenue is typically recognized upon transfer of control or when the software is made available for download, as this is the point that the user of the software can direct the use of, and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits from, the functional intellectual property. We begin to recognize software revenue related to the renewal of subscription software licenses at the start of the subscription period.

Service revenue includes revenue from customer support and other professional services. We offer warranties on our products. Certain of our warranties are considered to be assurance-type in nature, ensuring that the product is functioning as intended. Assurance-type warranties do not represent separate performance obligations. We also sell separately-priced maintenance service contracts which qualify as service-type warranties and represent separate performance obligations. We do not allow and have no history of accepting product returns.

Customer support includes software updates on a when-and-if-available basis, telephone support, integrated web-based support and bug fixes or patches. We sell our customer support contracts at a percentage of list or net product price related to the support. Customer support revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the customer support agreement, which is typically one year.

Our professional services include consulting, technical support, resident engineer services, design services and installation services. Because control transfers over time, revenue is recognized based on progress toward completion of the performance obligation. The method to measure progress toward completion requires judgment and is based on the nature of the products or services to be provided. We generally use the input method to measure progress for our contracts because we believe it best depicts the transfer of assets to the customer which occurs as we incur costs for the contracts. However, in some instances, we use the output method because it best depicts the transfer of asset to the customer. Under the cost-to-cost measure of progress,
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the progress toward completion is measured based on the ratio of costs incurred to date to the total estimated costs at completion of the performance obligation. When the measure of progress is based upon expended labor, progress toward completion is measured as the ratio of labor time expended to date versus the total estimated labor time required to complete the performance obligation. Revenue is recorded proportionally as costs are incurred or as labor is expended. Costs to fulfill these obligations include internal labor as well as subcontractor costs.

We offer customer training courses, for which the related revenue is typically recognized as the training services are performed.

Our contracts with customers often include promises to transfer multiple products and services to the customer. Determining whether products and services are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately versus together may require significant judgment.

Judgment is required to determine the SSP for each distinct performance obligation. In instances where SSP is not directly observable, such as when we do not sell the product or service separately, we determine the SSP using information that may include market conditions and other observable inputs. We typically have more than one SSP for individual products and services due to the stratification of those products and services by customers and circumstances. In these instances, the Company may use information such as the size of the customer and geographic region in determining the SSP.

Valuation of Inventory. We review inventory for both potential obsolescence and potential loss of value periodically. In this review, we make assumptions about the future demand for and market value of the inventory and, based on these assumptions, estimate the amount of any excess, obsolete or slow-moving inventory.

We write down our inventories if they are considered to be obsolete or at levels in excess of forecasted demand. In these cases, inventory is written down to estimated realizable value based on historical usage and expected demand. Inherent in our estimates of market value in determining inventory valuation are estimates related to economic trends, future demand for our products and technical obsolescence of our products. If future demand or market conditions are less favorable than our projections, additional inventory write-downs could be required and would be reflected in the cost of revenue in the period the revision is made. To date, we have not been required to revise any of our assumptions or estimates used in determining our inventory valuations.

We write down our evaluation equipment at the time of shipment to our customers, as it is not probable that the inventory value will be realizable.

Investments. We received Debentures and Warrants (collectively, the "AVCT Units") as consideration in connection with the Kandy Sale, which we accounted for in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 820, Fair Value Measurement ("ASC 820"). We were subject to a lock-up provision which limited our ability to sell any shares of the AVCT common stock underlying the Debentures and the Warrants prior to June 1, 2021 (the "Lock-Up Period"), except in certain transactions. On September 8, 2021 (the "Debenture Conversion Date"), the Debentures were converted into 13,700,421 shares of AVCT common stock (the "Debenture Shares").

We calculated the fair value of the Debentures using a Lattice-based valuation approach, which utilizes a binomial tree to model the different paths the price of AVCT's common stock might take over the Debentures' life by using assumptions regarding the stock price volatility and risk-free interest rate. These results were then used to calculate the fair value of the Debentures at each measurement date. We used the Black-Scholes valuation model for estimating the fair value of the Warrants at each measurement date. The fair value of the Warrants was affected by AVCT's stock price as well as valuation assumptions, including the volatility of AVCT's stock price, expected term of the option, risk-free interest rate and expected dividends. Both the Lattice and Black-Scholes valuation models were based on available market data, giving consideration to all of the rights and obligations of each instrument and precluding the use of "blockage" discounts or premiums in determining the fair value of a large block of financial instruments. After the expiration of the Lock-Up Period and prior to the Debenture Conversion Date, the Company valued the AVCT Units at each measurement date by multiplying the closing stock price of AVCT common stock by the number of shares upon conversion of the Debentures and Warrants. Since the Debenture Conversion Date, the Company is valuing the Debenture Shares and Warrants by multiplying the closing stock price of AVCT common stock by the number of Debenture Shares and Warrants (collectively, the "AVCT Investment") it is holding at each measurement date. Adjustments to the fair values of the AVCT Units (prior to the Debenture Conversion Date) and AVCT Investment (subsequent to the Debenture Conversion Date) are included in Other (expense) income, net. The fair values of the AVCT Investment and the AVCT Units are reported as Investments in our consolidated balance sheets at December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

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Warranty Accruals. We record warranty liabilities for estimated costs of fulfilling our obligations under standard limited hardware and software warranties at the time of sale. The liability for standard warranties is included in Accrued expenses and other and Other long-term liabilities in our consolidated balance sheet. The specific warranty terms and conditions vary depending upon the country in which we do business, but generally include material costs, technical support, labor and associated overhead over a period ranging from one to three years. We provide for the estimated costs to fulfill customer warranty obligations for certain of our products upon recognition of the related revenue. Warranty is included as a component of Cost of revenue in our consolidated statements of operations, and is determined based on actual warranty cost experience, estimates of component failure rates and our management's industry experience. Our sales contracts do not permit the right of return of the product by the customer after the product has been accepted.

Loss Contingencies and Reserves. We are subject to ongoing business risks arising in the ordinary course of business that affect the estimation process of the carrying value of assets, the recording of liabilities and the possibility of various loss contingencies. An estimated loss contingency is accrued when it is probable that a liability has been incurred or an asset has been impaired and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. We regularly evaluate current information available to determine whether such amounts should be adjusted and record changes in estimates in the period they become known. We are subject to various legal claims. We reserve for legal contingencies and legal fees when the amounts are probable and reasonably estimable.

Stock-Based Compensation. Our stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and is recognized as expense over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period.

We use the Black-Scholes valuation model for estimating the fair value on the date of grant of employee stock options. Determining the fair value of stock option awards at the grant date requires judgment regarding certain valuation assumptions, including the volatility of our stock price, expected term of the option, risk-free interest rate and expected dividends. Changes in such assumptions and estimates could result in different fair values and could therefore impact our earnings. Such changes, however, would not impact our cash flows. The fair value of restricted stock awards, restricted stock units and performance-based awards is based upon our stock price on the grant date.

We grant performance-based stock units, some of which include a market condition, to certain of our executives. We use a Monte Carlo simulation approach to model future stock price movements based upon the risk-free rate of return, the volatility of each entity, and the pair-wise covariance between each entity. These results are then used to calculate the grant date fair values of the performance-based stock units.

The amount of stock-based compensation expense recorded in any period for unvested awards requires estimates of the amount of stock-based awards that are expected to be forfeited prior to vesting, as well as assumptions regarding the probability that performance-based stock awards without market conditions will be earned.

Business Combinations. We allocate the purchase price of acquired companies to identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed at their acquisition date fair values. Goodwill as of the acquisition date is measured as the excess of consideration transferred over the net of the acquisition date fair values of the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed and represents the expected future economic benefits arising from other assets acquired in the business combination that are not individually identified and separately recognized. Significant management judgments and assumptions are required in determining the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, particularly acquired intangible assets which are principally based upon estimates of the future performance and cash flows expected from the acquired business and applied discount rates. While we use our best estimates and assumptions as part of the purchase price allocation process to accurately value assets acquired and liabilities assumed at a business combination date, our estimates and assumptions are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. If different assumptions are used, it could materially impact the purchase price allocation and our financial position and results of operations. Any adjustments to assets acquired or liabilities assumed subsequent to the purchase price allocation period are included in operating results in the period in which the adjustments are determined. Intangible assets typically are comprised of in-process research and development, developed technology, customer relationships, trade names and internal use software.

Goodwill and Intangible Assets. Goodwill is not amortized, but instead is tested for impairment annually, or more frequently if indicators of potential impairment exist. Intangible assets with estimated lives and other long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of intangible assets with estimated lives and other long-lived assets is measured by comparing the carrying amount of the asset to future net undiscounted pretax cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If these comparisons indicate that an asset is not recoverable, we will recognize an impairment loss for the amount by which the carrying value of the asset exceeds the related estimated fair value.
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Judgment is required in determining whether an event has occurred that may impair the value of goodwill, identifiable intangible assets or other long-lived assets. Factors that could indicate an impairment may exist include significant underperformance relative to plan or long-term projections, strategic changes in business strategy, significant negative industry or economic trends, a significant change in circumstances relative to a large customer, a significant decline in our stock price for a sustained period and a decline in our market capitalization to below net book value. We must make assumptions about future control premiums, market comparables, cash flows, operating plans, discount rates and other factors to determine recoverability.

Prior to 2020, our annual test for impairment of goodwill was completed as of November 30. Effective in 2020, we changed our annual goodwill impairment test date from November 30 to October 1. This change did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

As described above, effective in the fourth quarter of 2020, we determined that we had two operating segments: Cloud and Edge, and IP Optical Networks. For the purpose of testing goodwill for impairment, all goodwill is assigned to a reporting unit, which may be either an operating segment or a portion of an operating segment. We determined that the goodwill assigned to the Cloud and Edge reporting unit was $224.9 million and the goodwill assigned to the IP Optical Networks reporting unit was $192.0 million. We perform a fair value analysis using both an Income and Market approach, which encompasses a discounted cash flow analysis and a guideline public company analysis using selected multiples. We assess each valuation methodology based upon the relevance and availability of the data at the time the valuation is performed and the methodologies are weighted appropriately. Based on the results of our recently completed impairment test, we determined that the carrying value of our IP Optical Networks segment exceeded its fair value. We determined that the amount of the impairment was $116.0 million, and recorded an impairment charge in the fourth quarter of 2021. The impairment charge is reported separately in our consolidated statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2021. We determined that there was no impairment of our Cloud and Edge segment. Upon completion of our 2020 annual test for goodwill impairment, we determined that there was no impairment of goodwill for either of our reporting units.

We previously operated as a single operating segment with one reporting unit and consequently we evaluated goodwill for impairment based on an evaluation of the fair value of the Company as a whole. Based on the results of our 2019 annual impairment test, we determined that our carrying value exceeded our fair value. We performed a fair value analysis using both an income and market approach as described above. We determined that the amount of the impairment was $164.3 million and recorded an impairment charge in the fourth quarter of 2019. The impairment charge is reported separately in our consolidated statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2019.

Leases. We account for our leases in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 842, Leases ("ASC 842"). We have operating and finance leases for corporate offices, research and development facilities, and certain equipment. Operating leases are reported separately in our consolidated balance sheets at December 31, 2021 and 2020. Assets acquired under finance leases are included in Property and equipment, net, in our consolidated balance sheets at December 31, 2021 and 2020.

We determine if an arrangement is a lease at inception. A contract is determined to contain a lease component if the arrangement provides us with a right to control the use of an identified asset. Lease agreements may include lease and non-lease components. In such instances for all classes of underlying assets, we do not separate lease and non-lease components but rather, account for the entire arrangement under leasing guidance. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the balance sheet and lease expense for these leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

For operating leases, lease expense for minimum fixed lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The expense for finance leases includes both interest and amortization expense components, with the interest component calculated based on the effective interest method and the amortization component calculated based on straight-line amortization of the right-of-use asset over the lease term. Lease contracts may contain variable lease costs, such as common area maintenance, utilities and tax reimbursements that vary over the term of the contract. Variable lease costs are not included in minimum fixed lease payments and as a result, are excluded from the measurement of the right-of-use assets and lease liabilities. We expense all variable lease costs as incurred.

Accounting for Income Taxes. Our provision for income taxes is comprised of a current and a deferred portion. The current income tax provision is calculated as the estimated taxes payable or refundable on tax returns for 2021. We provide for deferred income taxes resulting from temporary differences between financial and taxable income. Such differences arise primarily from tax net operating loss ("NOL") and credit carryforwards, depreciation, deferred revenue, stock-based compensation expense, accruals and reserves.
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We assess the recoverability of any tax assets recorded on the balance sheet and provide any necessary valuation allowances as required. In evaluating our ability to recover our deferred tax assets, we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including our past operating results, the existence of cumulative income in the most recent years, changes in the business in which we operate and our forecast of future taxable income. In determining future taxable income, we make assumptions, including the amount of state, federal and international pre-tax operating income, the reversal of temporary differences and the implementation of feasible and prudent tax planning strategies. These assumptions require significant judgment about the forecasts of future taxable income and are consistent with the plans and estimates we are using to manage our underlying businesses. Such assessment is completed on a jurisdiction-by-jurisdiction basis.

In 2021, we released a portion of the valuation allowances of $28 million on U.S. federal attributes, including certain U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards. Thus, at December 31, 2021, we had valuation allowances of $472 million to offset deferred tax assets of $598 million. These remaining valuation allowances primarily relate to our U.S. and Israel operations. In the event we determine it is more likely than not that we will be able to use a deferred tax asset in the future in excess of its net carrying value, the valuation allowance would be reduced, thereby increasing net earnings and increasing equity in the period such determination is made. We have recorded net deferred tax assets in some of our other international subsidiaries. These amounts could change in future periods based upon our operating results and changes in tax law.

We have provided for income taxes on the undistributed earnings of our non-U.S. subsidiaries as of December 31, 2021, excluding Ireland and Israel. These subsidiaries, excluding Ireland and Israel, are cost-plus or limited risk distributors that are not anticipated to need to use excess funds locally. Accordingly, we are required to recognize and book deferred taxes for 2021. The deferred taxes are booked on the entire outside basis differences related to the foreign subsidiaries, the largest of these differences being undistributed earnings.

We assess all material positions taken in any income tax return, including all significant uncertain positions, in all tax years that are still subject to assessment or challenge by relevant taxing authorities. Assessing an uncertain tax position begins with the initial determination of the position's sustainability and is measured at the largest amount of benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. As of each balance sheet date, unresolved uncertain tax positions must be reassessed, and we determine whether (i) the factors underlying the sustainability assertion have changed and (ii) the amount of recognized tax benefit is still appropriate. The recognition and measurement of tax benefits require significant judgment. Judgments concerning the recognition and measurement of a tax benefit might change as new information becomes available.

Results of Operations

Years Ended December 31, 2021 and 2020

Revenue. Revenue for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 was as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
Year ended
December 31,
Increase (decrease)
from prior year
20212020$%
Product$453,042 $467,912 $(14,870)(3.2)%
Service391,915 375,883 16,032 4.3 %
Total revenue$844,957 $843,795 $1,162 0.1 %

Segment revenue for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 was as follows (in thousands):
Year ended
December 31, 2021
Year ended
December 31, 2020
Cloud and EdgeIP Optical NetworksTotalCloud and EdgeIP Optical NetworksTotal
Product$248,570 $204,472 $453,042 $275,445 $192,467 $467,912 
Service308,086 83,829 391,915 307,825 68,058 375,883 
Total revenue$556,656 $288,301 $844,957 $583,270 $260,525 $843,795 

The decrease in our product revenue in 2021 compared to 2020 was primarily the result of $35 million of lower sales of our Cloud and Edge SBC products, coupled with the loss of $11 million of revenue due to the Kandy Sale. Supply chain and logistics issues, especially in the fourth quarter of 2021, impacted our ability to deliver products, accounting for $10 million of these lower sales and delaying these sales until 2022. These decreases were partially offset by $18 million of higher sales of
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our Cloud and Edge network transformation products and $12 million of IP Optical Networks products. The increase in revenue from the sale of IP Optical Networks products was attributable to a full year of revenue included in 2021, compared to ten months of revenue in 2020.
In 2021, 25% of our product revenue was attributable to sales to enterprise customers, compared to 30% in 2020. These sales were made through both our direct sales team and indirect sales channel partners. In 2021, 26% of our product revenue was from indirect sales through our channel partner program, compared to 29% in 2020.

The timing of the completion of customer projects and revenue recognition criteria satisfaction may cause our product revenue to fluctuate from one period to the next.

Service revenue is primarily comprised of software and hardware maintenance and support (“maintenance revenue”) and network design, installation and other professional services (“professional services revenue”).

Service revenue for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 was comprised of the following (in thousands, except percentages):
Year ended
December 31,
Increase
from prior year
20212020$%
Maintenance$286,321 $274,816 $11,505 4.2 %
Professional services105,594 101,067 4,527 4.5 %
  Total service revenue$391,915 $375,883 $16,032 4.3 %

Segment service revenue for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 was comprised of the following (in thousands):

Year ended
December 31, 2021
Year ended
December 31, 2020
Cloud and EdgeIP Optical NetworksTotalCloud and EdgeIP Optical NetworksTotal
Maintenance$228,321 $58,000 $286,321 $229,035 $45,781 $274,816 
Professional services79,765 25,829 105,594 78,790 22,277 101,067 
  Total service revenue$308,086 $83,829 $391,915 $307,825 $68,058 $375,883 

Total service revenue from our Cloud and Edge segment was relatively flat in 2021 compared to 2020. Service revenue from our IP Optical Networks segment increased by $16 million in 2021 compared to 2020. IP Optical Networks maintenance revenue and professional services revenue increased by $12 million and $4 million, respectively, in 2021 and 2020. This increase is primarily attributable to the inclusion of a full year of revenue in 2021, compared to 10 months of revenue in 2020.

The following customer contributed 10% or more of our revenue in the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020:
Year ended
December 31,
20212020
Verizon Communications Inc.16%15%

Revenue earned from customers domiciled outside the United States was 56% of revenue in 2021 and 55% of revenue in 2020. Due to the timing of project completions, we expect that the domestic and international components as a percentage of our revenue may fluctuate from quarter to quarter and year to year. Our total revenue for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 was disaggregated geographically as follows (in thousands):
Year ended December 31, 2021Product revenueService revenue (maintenance)Service revenue (professional services)Total revenue
United States$196,058 $132,683 $47,296 $376,037 
Europe, Middle East and Africa138,203 79,475 30,349 248,027 
Asia Pacific92,803 41,945 18,183 152,931 
Other25,978 32,218 9,766 67,962 
$453,042 $286,321 $105,594 $844,957 

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Year ended December 31, 2020Product revenueService revenue (maintenance)Service revenue (professional services)Total revenue
United States$201,347 $132,661 $48,611 $382,619 
Europe, Middle East and Africa149,567 73,475 25,226 248,268 
Asia Pacific90,201 36,628 19,627 146,456 
Other26,797 32,052 7,603 66,452 
$467,912 $274,816 $101,067 $843,795 

Our deferred product revenue was $10 million at December 31, 2021 and $8 million at December 31, 2020. Our deferred service revenue was $120 million at December 31, 2021 and $115 million at December 31, 2020. Our deferred revenue balance may fluctuate as a result of the timing of revenue recognition, customer payments, maintenance contract renewals, contractual billing rights and maintenance revenue deferrals included in multiple element arrangements.

We expect that our total revenue in 2022 will increase modestly compared to our 2021 total revenue as our strategy to grow our IP Optical market share in North America gains momentum and capital spending in India and Israel increases.

Cost of Revenue/Gross Margin. Our cost of revenue consists primarily of amounts paid to third-party manufacturers for purchased materials and services, royalties, amortization of acquired technology, inventory valuation adjustments, warranty costs, and manufacturing and services personnel and related costs. Our cost of revenue, gross profit and gross margin for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 were as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
Year ended
December 31,
Increase (decrease)
from prior year
20212020$%
Cost of revenue:
Product$214,745 $204,772 $9,973 4.9 %
Service147,209 145,916 1,293 0.9 %
Amortization of acquired technology38,343 42,290 (3,947)(9.3)%
Total cost of revenue$400,297 $392,978 $7,319 1.9 %
Gross profit$444,660 $450,817 $(6,157)(1.4)%
Gross margin52.6 %53.4 %

Our segment cost of revenue, gross profit and gross margin for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 were as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
Year ended
December 31, 2021
Year ended
December 31, 2020
Cloud and EdgeIP Optical NetworksTotalCloud and EdgeIP Optical NetworksTotal
  Product$79,811 $134,934 $214,745 $89,883 $114,889 $204,772 
  Service107,677 39,532 147,209 108,985 36,931 145,916 
Amortization of acquired technology25,704 12,639 38,343 30,937 11,353 42,290 
    Total cost of revenue$213,192 $187,105 $400,297 $229,805 $163,173 $392,978 
Gross profit$343,464 $101,196 $444,660 $353,465 $97,352 $450,817 
Gross margin61.7 %35.1 %52.6 %60.6 %37.4 %53.4 %

Our gross margin decreased by one percentage point in 2021 compared to 2020. This decrease was primarily the result of higher component costs, expedite and production fees, and logistics expenses (collectively, "production costs") in both of our segments, coupled with product and customer mix, which decreased our gross margin by approximately two percentage points in the aggregate. This decrease was partially offset by the absence of costs related to our Kandy products as a result of the Kandy Sale, which increased our gross margin by approximately one percentage point.

The increase in our Cloud and Edge segment gross margin in 2021 compared to 2020 was primarily attributable to the absence of Kandy costs in the current year, partially offset by the aforementioned higher production costs in 2021. The decrease in our IP Optical segment gross margin in 2021 compared to 2020 was primarily attributable to the aforementioned higher production costs, partially offset by lower installation costs.
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We believe that our gross margin may decrease in 2022 compared to 2021 as a result of higher expected sales from IP Optical Networks, which has lower margins due to the higher hardware content in their products, and higher production costs resulting from ongoing worldwide supply chain issues.

Research and Development. Research and development ("R&D") expenses consist primarily of salaries and related personnel expenses and prototype costs for the design, development, testing and enhancement of our products. Research and development expenses for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 were as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
Year ended
December 31,
Increase
from prior year
20212020$%
$194,948 $194,525 $423 0.2 %

Our research and development expenses were virtually flat in 2021 compared to 2020. Lower costs in our Cloud and Edge segment aggregated $25 million, primarily employee-related and product development costs, including the impact of the Kandy sale. These decreases were virtually offset by higher costs in our IP Optical Networks segment, primarily employee-related, product development and infrastructure -related expenses. These higher costs were primarily attributable to the inclusion of a full year of expenses in the current year, compared to ten months of expense in 2020, coupled with increased investment in our IP Optical Networks segment's product development.

Some aspects of our R&D efforts require significant short-term expenditures, the timing of which may cause significant variability in our expenses. We believe that rapid technological innovation is critical to our long-term success, and we are tailoring our investments to meet the requirements of our customers and market. We believe that our R&D expenses in 2022 will increase modestly compared to 2021, primarily due to our incremental investment in critical growth areas, partially offset by cost savings from the 2022 Restructuring Initiative.

Sales and Marketing. Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of salaries and related personnel costs, commissions, travel and entertainment expenses, promotions, customer trial and evaluations inventory and other marketing and sales support expenses. Sales and marketing expenses for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 were as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
Year ended
December 31,
Increase
from prior year
20212020$%
$150,279 $139,318 $10,961 7.9 %

The increase in sales and marketing expenses in 2021 compared to 2020 was primarily attributable to $7 million of higher employee-related expenses, $2 million of higher consulting fees, $1 million of higher infrastructure-related costs, and $1 million of net increases in other sales and marketing expenses.

At the segment level, our IP Optical Networks segment sales and market expenses increased by $15 million in 2021, partially offset by $4 million of lower Cloud and Edge segment expenses. The increase in IP Optical Networks segment expense is primarily attributable to the inclusion of a full year of expense in the current year, compared to ten months of expense in 2020, principally employee-related, consulting and infrastructure-related costs. The decrease in Cloud and Edge segment expense was primarily attributable to lower employee-related expenses resulting from the Kandy Sale.

We believe that our sales and marketing expenses 2022 will be consistent with 2021 levels.

General and Administrative. General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and related personnel costs for executive and administrative personnel, and audit, legal and other professional fees. General and administrative expenses for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 were as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
Year ended
December 31,
Decrease
from prior year
20212020$%
$53,661 $63,286 $(9,625)(15.2)%

The decrease in general and administrative expenses in the 2021 compared to 2020 was primarily attributable to $5 million of lower infrastructure-related expenses, $2 million each of lower employee- and litigation-related expenses, and $1 million of
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net decreases in other general and administrative expenses.

At the segment level, our Cloud and Edge segment expenses decreased by $8 million, while our IP Optical Networks segment expenses decreased by $2 million. The decrease in Cloud and Edge segment expenses was primarily attributable to lower infrastructure-related expense, the absence of approximately $2 million of litigation-related expense in the current year, and lower employee-related expenses and professional (i.e., consulting, legal and audit) fees. Lower infrastructure- and employee-related expenses for our IP Optical Networks segment were partially offset by higher general and administrative expenses resulting from the inclusion of a full year of expense in the current year, compared to ten months of expense in 2020.

We believe that our general and administrative expenses in 2022 will decrease slightly compared to our 2021 levels, primarily due to cost savings from the 2022 Restructuring Initiative.

Amortization of Acquired Intangible Assets included in Operating expenses. Amortization of acquired intangible assets included in Operating expenses for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 was as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
Year ended
December 31,
Increase
from prior year
20212020$%
$28,283 $18,620 $9,663 51.9 %

The increase in amortization of acquired intangible assets included in operating expenses was primarily due to the inclusion of amortization expense related to the ECI Acquisition for a full year, compared to ten months of expense in 2020, coupled with the scheduled recognition of such expense in relation to expected future cash flows, as the amortization of such intangible assets is not recorded on a straight-line basis.

Impairment of Goodwill. Our annual testing for impairment of goodwill is completed as of October 1. Based on the results of our recently completed impairment test, we determined that the carrying value of our IP Optical Networks segment exceeded its fair value, and recorded an impairment charge of $116.0 million in the fourth quarter of 2021. We determined that there was no impairment of our Cloud and Edge segment. Our annual test for impairment in 2020 did not result in an impairment for either of our two reporting units. Impairment of goodwill is reported separately in the consolidated statements of operations.

Acquisition-, Disposal- and Integration-Related. Acquisition-, disposal- and integration-related expenses include those expenses related to acquisitions that we would otherwise not have incurred. Acquisition- and disposal-related expenses include professional and services fees, such as legal, audit, consulting, paying agent and other fees. Integration-related expenses represent incremental costs related to combining the Company's systems and processes with those of acquired businesses, such as third-party consulting and other third-party services. Acquisition-, disposal- and integration-related expenses are reported separately in the consolidated statements of operations.

We recorded $7.6 million of acquisition-, disposal- and integration-related expenses in 2021, comprised of $7.1 million of integration-related expenses, $0.3 million of disposal-related expenses an $0.2 million of acquisition-related expenses. We recorded $17.2 million of acquisition-, disposal- and integration-related expenses in 2020, comprised of $13.4 million of acquisition-related expenses, $1.9 million of disposal-related expenses and $1.8 million of integration-related expenses. The acquisition-related expenses primarily related to the ECI Acquisition and, to a lesser extent, other acquisition-related activities. The disposal-related expenses related to the Kandy Sale. The integration-related expenses related to our ongoing integration activities, primarily related to the ECI Acquisition.

Restructuring and Related. We have been committed to streamlining operations and reducing operating costs by closing and consolidating certain facilities and reducing our worldwide workforce. Please see the additional discussion of our restructuring initiatives in the "Restructuring and Cost Reduction Initiatives" section of the Overview of this Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. Restructuring and related expense is reported separately in the consolidated statements of operations.

We recorded restructuring and related expense of $11.7 million in 2021, comprised of $4.6 million for severance and related costs, and $7.1 million for variable and other facilities-related costs, including $1.3 million of net expense for the accelerated amortization of lease assets. We recorded $16.2 million of restructuring and related expense in 2020, comprised of $12.0 million for severance and related costs, and $4.2 million for variable and other facilities-related costs, including $0.6 million for the accelerated amortization of lease assets.
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Although we have eliminated positions as part of our restructuring initiatives, we continue to hire in certain areas that we believe are important to our future growth.

Interest Expense, net. Interest expense and interest income for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 were as follows (in millions, except percentages):
Year ended
December 31,
Increase (decrease)
from prior year
20212020$%
Interest income$3,733 $471 $3,262 692.6 %
Interest expense(19,564)(21,513)(1,949)(9.1)%
$(15,831)$(21,042)$5,211 (24.8)%

Interest income in 2021 primarily represents paid-in-kind interest on the Debentures prior to the Debenture Conversion Date, which was recorded as an increase to the fair value of the Debentures. Interest expense in 2021 was primarily comprised of $13.8 million of interest on our outstanding term debt and $4.8 million in the aggregate related to amortization of debt issuance costs in connection with the 2020 Credit Facility (as defined below), including the write-off of $2.5 million of capitalized debt issuance costs in connection with the Third Amendment (as defined below), and interest expense in connection with the factoring of certain accounts receivable.

Interest income in 2020 primarily represents interest earned on the outstanding note receivable from Metaswitch, which was paid in full in the third quarter of 2020. Interest expense in 2020 was primarily comprised of $14.4 million of interest on our outstanding term debt, and $4.2 million in the aggregate related to amortization of debt issuance costs, interest on other borrowings and finance leases, and interest expense in connection with the factoring of certain accounts receivable. Interest expense in 2020 also included the write-off of $2.9 million of debt issuance costs in connection with the amendment of the 2020 Credit Facility and the retirement of the 2019 Credit Facility (as defined below).

Other (Expense) Income, Net. We recorded other expense, net, aggregating $74.5 million in 2021, primarily comprised of $74.8 million of losses resulting from the change in fair value of the AVCT Units for the period from January 1, 2021 to the Debenture Conversion Date and the AVCT Investment for the period from the Debenture Conversion Date to December 31, 2021. This loss was partially offset by a gain of $2.8 million on the sale of our QualiTech business, which operates compliance testing laboratories in Israel for reliability and standardization testing for the high-tech industry, including testing in medical equipment, military equipment and vehicles ("QualiTech"). We recorded $112.7 million of net other income in 2020, primarily in connection with the Kandy Sale, which was comprised of $83.6 million from the gain on the sale, and $30.3 million related to the increase in the fair value of the AVCT Units from the Kandy Sale Date through December 31, 2020.

Income Tax Benefit (Provision). We recorded an income tax benefit of $31.0 million in 2021 and an income tax provision of $4.7 million in 2020. The benefit recorded in 2021 was primarily the result of the release of part of the valuation allowance against deferred tax assets in the U.S. and a reduction in the deferred taxes on the undistributed earnings of non-U.S. subsidiaries due to legal entity restructuring activities. The provision recorded in 2020 was primarily the result of the gain from the Kandy Sale and foreign operations.

During 2021 and 2020, we performed an analysis to determine if, based on all available evidence, we considered it more likely than not that some portion or all of the recorded deferred tax assets will not be realized in a future period. As a result of our evaluations, in 2021, we released a portion of the valuation allowance on U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards of $28 million. As a result, for the U.S. deferred tax assets, we concluded that deferred tax assets are generally realizable, with the exception of certain federal and state net operating loss carryforwards, as well as certain tax credits, that are not anticipated to be utilized. Accordingly, we have maintained a valuation allowance on our U.S. deferred tax assets of $30.5 million. As a result of our evaluations for Israel, we maintained a valuation against our deferred tax assets in Israel.

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Liquidity and Capital Resources

Our consolidated statements of cash flows are summarized as follows (in thousands):
Year ended
December 31,
20212020Change
Net (loss) income$(177,185)$88,591 $(265,776)
Adjustments to reconcile net (loss) income to cash flows provided by operating activities251,655 (17,903)269,558 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities(55,288)30,876 (86,164)
Net cash provided by operating activities$19,182 $101,564 $(82,382)
Net cash used in investing activities$(14,188)$(330,073)$315,885 
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities$(33,683)$319,303 $(352,986)

We had cash and restricted cash aggregating $106.5 million and $135.7 million at December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. We had cash held by our non-U.S. subsidiaries aggregating approximately $60 million and $46 million at December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. If we elect to repatriate all of the funds held by our non-U.S. subsidiaries as of December 31, 2021, we do not believe that the amounts of potential withholding taxes that would arise from the repatriation would have a material effect on our liquidity.

On April 29, 2019, we, as guarantor, and Ribbon Communications Operating Company, Inc., as borrower, entered into a syndicated, amended and restated credit facility (the "2019 Credit Facility"), which replaced our previous credit facility, which we had entered into in 2018. The 2019 Credit Facility provided for a $50 million term loan facility that was advanced in full on April 29, 2019, and a $100 million revolving line of credit.

We currently maintain the Senior Secured Credit Facilities Credit Agreement (as amended, the "2020 Credit Facility"), which we entered into on March 3, 2020, by and among us, as a guarantor, Ribbon Communications Operating Company, Inc., as the borrower ("Borrower"), Citizens Bank, N.A. ("Citizens"), as administrative agent, a lender, issuing lender, swingline lender, joint lead arranger and bookrunner, Santander Bank, N.A., as a lender, joint lead arranger and bookrunner, and the other lenders party thereto (each, together with Citizens Bank, N.A. and Santander Bank, N.A., referred to individually as a "Lender", and collectively, the "Lenders"). For additional details regarding the terms of the 2020 Credit Facility, see Note 10 to our consolidated financial statements. The proceeds from the 2020 Credit Facility were used, in part, to pay off in full all obligations of the Company under the 2019 Credit Facility.

The 2020 Credit Facility provides for $500 million of commitments from the lenders to the Borrower, comprised of $400 million in term loans (the "2020 Term Loan Facility") and a $100 million facility available for revolving loans (the "2020 Revolving Credit Facility"). Under the 2020 Revolving Credit Facility, a $30 million sublimit is available for letters of credit and a $20 million sublimit is available for swingline loans. Under the 2020 Credit Facility, we were originally required to make quarterly principal payments aggregating approximately $10 million in the first year, $20 million per year for the following three years and $30 million in the last year, with the remaining balance due on the maturity date.

The indebtedness and other obligations under the 2020 Credit Facility are unconditionally guaranteed on a senior secured basis by the Company, Edgewater Networks, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, and GENBAND Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company (together, the "Guarantors"). The 2020 Credit Facility is secured by first-priority liens on substantially all of the assets of the Borrower and the Guarantors, including substantially all of the assets of the Company.

The 2020 Credit Facility requires compliance with certain financial covenants, including a minimum Consolidated Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio and a maximum Consolidated Net Leverage Ratio (each as defined in the 2020 Credit Agreement, and each tested on a quarterly basis).

In addition, the 2020 Credit Facility contains various covenants that, among other restrictions, limit our and our subsidiaries’ ability to incur or assume indebtedness; grant or assume liens; make acquisitions or engage in mergers; sell, transfer, assign or convey assets; repurchase equity and make dividend and certain other restricted payments; make investments; engage in transactions with affiliates; enter into sale and leaseback transactions; enter into burdensome agreements; change the nature of its business; modify their organizational documents; or amend or make prepayments on certain junior debt.

The 2020 Credit Facility contains events of default that are customary for a secured credit facility. If an event of default relating to bankruptcy or other insolvency events with respect to the Company or any of its subsidiaries occurs, all obligations
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under the 2020 Credit Facility will immediately become due and payable. If any other event of default exists under the 2020 Credit Facility, the lenders can accelerate the maturity of the obligations outstanding under the 2020 Credit Facility and exercise other rights and remedies, including charging a default rate of interest equal to 2.00% per year above the rate that would otherwise be applicable. In addition, if any event of default exists under the 2020 Credit Facility, the lenders can commence foreclosure or other actions against the collateral.

On August 18, 2020 (the "First Amendment Effective Date"), we entered into the First Amendment to the 2020 Credit Facility. Pursuant to an assignment and assumption agreement entered into by Citizens and certain affiliates of Whitehorse Capital on the First Amendment Effective Date (collectively, "HIG Whitehorse"), and consented to by Citizens and the Borrower, $75 million of the 2020 Term Loan Facility, designated as the Term B Loan (the "Term B Loan") was assigned from Citizens to HIG Whitehorse. The remaining $325 million of the 2020 Term Loan Facility that was not assigned to HIG Whitehorse was deemed the Term A Loan (the "Term A Loan" and, together with the Term B Loan, the "Amended 2020 Term Loan Facility").

The Term A Loan and amounts under the 2020 Revolving Credit Facility mature in March 2025. The Term A Loan and 2020 Revolving Credit Facility bear interest at the Borrower's option at either the LIBOR rate plus a margin ranging from 1.50% to 3.50% per year, or the base rate (the highest of the Federal Funds Effective Rate (as defined in the 2020 Credit Agreement) plus 0.50%, or the prime rate announced from time to time in The Wall Street Journal) plus a margin ranging from 0.50% to 2.50% per year (the "Applicable Margin"). The Applicable Margin varies depending on our Consolidated Net Leverage Ratio (as defined in the 2020 Credit Agreement). The base rate and the LIBOR rate are each subject to a zero percent floor. We are required to make quarterly principal payments on the Term A Loan aggregating approximately $10 million in the first year, $16 million in each of the next two years, $20 million in the fourth year and $16 million in the last year, with the final payment approximating $244 million due on the maturity date. The Borrower can prepay all amounts under the Term A Loan and the 2020 Revolving Credit Facility at any time without premium or penalty (other than customary LIBOR breakage costs), subject to certain notice requirements. The First Amendment did not change the terms applied to the Term A Loan or the Revolving Credit Facility under the 2020 Credit Facility.

The Term B Loan was scheduled to mature in March 2026 and bore interest, at the Borrower's option, at either the LIBOR rate plus a margin of 7.50% per year, or the base rate (the highest of the Federal Funds Effective Rate (as defined in the 2020 Credit Facility) plus 0.50%, or the prime rate announced from time to time in The Wall Street Journal, plus a margin of 6.50% per year. The Term B Loan had a lower rate of amortization than the Term A Loan and was subject to a 1.0% premium if voluntarily repaid in connection with a repricing transaction (as defined in the First Amendment) occurring prior to the six month anniversary of the First Amendment Effective Date. We were required to make quarterly principal payments totaling approximately $1 million in the first year and $8 million in the aggregate over the next four and a half years, with the final payment approximating $66 million due on the maturity date.

The First Amendment reduced the Borrower's ability to incur new tranches of term loans, or increases in commitments under the Amended 2020 Term Loan Facility or the 2020 Revolving Credit Facility. Specifically, such indebtedness can be incurred up to an aggregate dollar amount equal to 75% of the Company's Consolidated Adjusted EBITDA (as defined in the 2020 Credit Facility), reduced from 100% prior to the First Amendment, as of the most recently ended fiscal quarter for which financial statements have been delivered to the lenders, plus additional amounts, so long as the Borrower's Consolidated Net Leverage Ratio (as defined in the 2020 Credit Facility) does not exceed 2.25:1.00, reduced from 2.75:1.00 prior to the First Amendment. The First Amendment also reduced the amount of Unrestricted Cash (as defined in the 2020 Credit Facility) used in calculating the Borrower's Consolidated Net Leverage Ratio from $25 million to $10 million.

On December 1, 2020, we entered into a Second Amendment to the 2020 Credit Facility to obtain consent for an equity exchange with AVCT in connection with the Kandy Sale, as well as amend certain provisions of the 2020 Credit Facility.

At December 31, 2020, we had an outstanding Term A Loan balance of $318.5 million at an average interest rate of 3.4%, and the Term B Loan had an outstanding balance of $74.6 million at average interest rate of 8.40%. The 2020 Revolving Credit Facility did not have an outstanding balance but had $5.6 million of letters of credit outstanding with an interest rate of 2.5%.

On March 3, 2021 (the "Third Amendment Effective Date"), we entered into a Third Amendment to Credit Agreement (the "Third Amendment"), which further amended the 2020 Credit Facility. The Third Amendment provided for an incremental term loan facility to us in the original principal amount of $74.6 million, the proceeds of which were used on the Third Amendment Effective Date to consummate an open market purchase of all outstanding amounts under the Term B Loan. Upon the consummation of the open market purchase, the Term B Loans were assigned to the Borrower and immediately canceled, such that the outstanding amount under the Term A Loan and incremental term loan facility were combined and held by the Lenders (the "2020 Term Loan"). We are required to make quarterly principal payments on the 2020 Term Loan aggregating
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approximately $20 million per year in the first three years and $30 million in the fourth year, with the final payment approximating $300 million due on the maturity date.

On March 10, 2022, we entered into a Fourth Amendment to the 2020 Credit Facility (the "Fourth Amendment") to increase the Maximum Consolidated Net Leverage Ratio (as defined in the 2020 Credit Facility) to 4.25:1.00 for the first quarter of 2022 and 4.50:1.00 for the second quarter of 2022, with reductions in subsequent quarters through the third quarter of 2023, when the ratio will be fixed at 3.00:1.00. In connection with the Fourth Amendment, we made a $15.0 million prepayment that was applied to the final payment due on the maturity date.

At December 31, 2021, we had an outstanding 2020 Term Loan balance of $375.5 million at an average interest rate of 3.4% and $4.3 million of letters of credit outstanding with an interest rate of 2.5%. We were in compliance with all covenants of the 2020 Credit Facility at both December 31, 2021 and 2020.

We are exposed to financial market risk related to foreign currency fluctuations and changes in interest rates. These exposures are actively monitored by management. To manage the volatility related to the exposure to changes in interest rates, we have entered into a derivative financial instrument. Management's objective is to reduce, where it is deemed appropriate to do so, fluctuations in earnings and cash flows associated with changes in interest rates. Our policies and practices are to use derivative financial instruments only to the extent necessary to manage exposures. We do not hold or issue derivative financial instruments for trading or speculative purposes.

As a result of exposure to interest rate movements, during March 2020, we entered into an interest rate swap arrangement, which effectively converted our $400 million term loan with its variable interest rate based upon one-month LIBOR to an aggregate fixed rate of 0.904%, plus a leverage-based margin as defined in the 2020 Credit Facility. The notional amount of this swap as of December 31, 2021 was $400 million, and the swap matures on March 3, 2025, the same date the 2020 Credit Facility matures.

Our objectives in using interest rate derivatives are to add stability to interest expense and to manage our exposure to interest rate movements. To accomplish this objective, we are using an interest rate swap as part of our interest rate risk management strategy. Interest rate swaps designated as cash flow hedges involve the receipt of variable amounts from a counterparty in exchange for making fixed-rate payments over the life of the agreements without exchange of the underlying notional amount.

The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives designated and that qualify as cash flow hedges is recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in the consolidated balance sheet and is subsequently reclassified into earnings in the period that the hedged forecasted transactions affect earnings. During the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, such a derivative was used to hedge the variable cash flows associated with the 2020 Credit Facility. Any ineffective portion of the change in fair value of the derivative would be recognized directly in earnings. However, during the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, we recorded no hedge ineffectiveness.

Amounts reported in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) related to our derivative are reclassified to interest expense as interest is accrued on our variable-rate debt. Based upon projected forward rates, we estimate as of December 31, 2021 that $2.1 million may be reclassified as an increase to interest expense over the next 12 months.

We use letters of credit, performance and bid bonds in the course of our business. At December 31, 2021, we had $30.1 million of letters of credit, bank guarantees, performance and bid bonds outstanding (collectively, the "Guarantees"), comprised of the $4.3 million of letters of credit under the 2020 Credit Facility described above (the "Letters of Credit") and $25.8 million of bank guarantees and performance and bid bonds under various uncommitted facilities (collectively, the "Other Guarantees"). At December 31, 2020, we had $32.6 million of Guarantees, comprised of $5.6 million of Letters of Credit and $27.0 million of Other Guarantees. At December 31, 2021 and 2020, we had cash collateral of $2.6 million and $2.7 million, respectively, supporting the Guarantees under our uncommitted facilities. This cash collateral is included in Restricted cash in our consolidated balance sheets at December 31, 2021 and 2020.

Our IP Optical Networks segment maintains customer receivables factoring agreements with a number of financial institutions. Under the terms of these agreements, we may transfer receivables to the financial institutions, on a non-recourse basis, provided that the financial institutions approve the receivables in advance. During the year ended December 31, 2021, we received $118.5 million of cash from the sale of certain accounts receivable and recorded $0.8 million of interest expense in connection with these transactions. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we received $119.8 million of cash from the sale of certain accounts receivable and recorded $0.9 million of interest expense in connection with these transactions.

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In the second quarter of 2019, our Board approved a stock repurchase program (the "Repurchase Program") pursuant to which we could repurchase up to $75 million of our common stock prior to April 18, 2021. The Company did not repurchase any common stock in the year ended December 31, 2020 or in the period from January 1, 2021 though the expiration of the Repurchase Program on April 18, 2021.

We have no off-balance sheet arrangements that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future material effect on our financial position, changes in financial position, revenue or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources.

Cash Flows from Operating Activities

Our primary source of cash from operating activities has been from cash collections from our customers. We expect cash flows from operating activities to be affected by increases and decreases in sales volumes and timing of collections, and by purchases and shipments of inventory. Our primary uses of cash from operating activities have been for personnel costs and investment in our research and development and in our sales and marketing, and general and administrative departments.

Our operating activities provided $19 million of cash in 2021, primarily the result of higher accounts payable and deferred revenue, and lower other operating assets, coupled with our non-cash operating expenses such as the impairment of goodwill, the decrease in the fair value of the AVCT Investment, amortization of intangible assets, stock-based compensation and depreciation. These amounts were partially offset by our net loss and a non-cash gain arising from the reversal of portions of our deferred tax asset, coupled with lower accrued expenses and other long-term liabilities and higher accounts receivable and inventory. The decrease in accrued expenses and other long-term liabilities was primarily due to employee-related cash payments and payments related to facilities, professional fees and royalties.

Our operating activities provided $102 million of cash in 2020, primarily the result of our net income, lower other operating assets, inventory and accounts receivable, higher accrued expenses and other long-term liabilities, and our non-cash operating income and expenses such as the gain on the Kandy Sale, amortization of intangible assets, stock-based compensation, depreciation, and amortization of debt issuance costs. These amounts were partially offset by lower accounts payable and deferred revenue. The decrease in other operating assets was primarily due to the payments received from Metaswitch aggregating $26 million in connection with the 2019 litigation settlement and subsequent supplemental agreement to accelerate the payment of amounts outstanding. The increase in accrued expenses and other long-term liabilities was primarily due to the derivative liability we recorded in connection with our interest rate swap, which we entered into in the first quarter of 2020.

Cash Flows from Investing Activities

Our investing activities used $14 million and $330 million of cash in 2021 and 2020, respectively. Our 2021 investing activities were comprised of $17 million paid for purchases of property and equipment, partially offset by $3 million of proceeds from the sale of QualiTech. Our 2020 investing activities were comprised of $347 million of cash paid as cash consideration for ECI and $26 million paid for purchases of property and equipment, partially offset by $43 million of cash proceeds from the sale of land in connection with the ECI Acquisition.

Cash Flows from Financing Activities

Our financing activities used $34 million of cash in 2021. We received $75 million of proceeds from the incremental loan obtained in connection with the Third Amendment, which amount was used to consummate an open market purchase of all outstanding amounts under the Term B Loan. We used $92 million for principal payments of term debt, including the $75 million payoff of the Term B Loan in connection with the Third Amendment, $14 million for the payment of tax withholding obligations related to the net share settlement of restricted stock awards upon vesting, and $1 million each for principal payments of finance leases and payments of debt issuance costs.

Our financing activities provided $319 million of cash in 2020, primarily due to $479 million of proceeds from term debt, which was comprised of $400 million from the 2020 Credit Facility, $75 million from the Term B Loan under the Amended 2020 Credit Facility (concurrent with the repayment of the same amount of original debt under the 2020 Credit Facility as noted below) and $4 million of proceeds from short-term loans in China for the financing of certain export activities. These proceeds were partially offset by the repayment of the $75 million of debt that was extinguished in connection with the First Amendment, the repayment of $57 million outstanding under the 2019 Credit Facility (comprised of $8 million under the revolving credit facility and $49 million of long-term debt), the payment of $14 million of debt issuance costs in connection with the 2020 Credit Facility and the First Amendment, and the repayment of principal aggregating $10 million related to the
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2020 Credit Facility and short-term loans in China. We also paid $2 million for withholding obligations related to the net share settlement of restricted stock awards upon vesting and $1 million for principal payments on finance leases.
Based on our current expectations, we believe our current cash and available borrowings under the 2020 Credit Facility will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash needs for working capital and capital expenditures for at least twelve months. The rate at which we consume cash is dependent on the cash needs of our future operations, including our contractual obligations at December 31, 2021, primarily comprised of our debt principal and interest obligations as described above, and our operating lease and purchase obligations. Our operating lease obligations totaled $88 million at December 31, 2021, with payments aggregating $21 million in 2022, $18 million in 2023, $11 million in 2024 and $38 million thereafter. Our purchase obligations totaled $167 million at December 31, 2021, with estimated payments aggregating $139 million in 2022 and $28 million thereafter. We anticipate devoting substantial capital resources to continue our research and development efforts, to maintain our sales, support and marketing, to complete acquisition-related integration activities and for other general corporate activities. We further believe that our financial resources, along with managing discretionary expenses, will allow us to manage the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business operations. Looking ahead, we have developed contingency plans to reduce costs further if the situation continues to deteriorate. The challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic on our business continue to evolve rapidly. Consequently, we continue to evaluate our financial position in light of future developments, particularly those relating to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, it is difficult to predict future liquidity requirements with certainty, and our cash and available borrowings under the 2020 Credit Facility may not be sufficient to meet our future needs, which would require us to refinance our debt and/or obtain additional financing. We may not be able to refinance our debt or obtain additional financing on favorable terms or at all.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In December 2019, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes ("ASU 2019-12"), which modifies Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 740, Income Taxes (Topic 740), to simplify the accounting for income taxes. ASU 2019-12 addresses the accounting for hybrid tax regimes, tax basis step-up in goodwill obtained in a transaction that is not a business combination, separate financial statements of legal entities not subject to tax, intraperiod tax allocation exception to incremental approach, ownership changes in investments - changes from a subsidiary to an equity method investment, ownership changes in investments - changes from an equity method investment to a subsidiary, interim period accounting for enacted changes in tax law and year-to-date loss limitation in interim period tax accounting. The adoption of ASU 2019-12 did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements upon adoption.

In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers ("ASU 2021-08"), which amends ASC 805, Business Combinations (Topic 805), to add contract assets and contract liabilities to the list of exceptions to the recognition and measurement principles that apply to business combinations and to require that an acquiring entity recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities acquired in a business combination in accordance with ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) ("ASC 606"). Under current GAAP, an acquirer generally recognizes such items at fair value on the acquisition date. While primarily related to contract assets and contract liabilities that were accounted for by the acquiree in accordance with ASC 606, ASU 2021-08 also applies to contract assets and contract liabilities from other contracts to which the provisions of ASC 606 apply, such as contract liabilities from the sale of nonfinancial assets within the scope of ASU 2017-05, Other Income - Gains and Losses from the Derecognition of Nonfinancial Assets (Subtopic 610-20). ASU 2021-08 is effective for the Company January 1, 2023, with early adoption permitted. We believe that the adoption of ASU 2021-08 could have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements for periods including and subsequent to significant business acquisitions.

In January 2021 the FASB issued ASU 2021-01, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Scope ("ASU 2021-01"), which refines the scope of ASC 848, Reference Rate Reform, and clarifies some of its guidance as part of the FASB's monitoring of global reference rate reform activities. ASU 2021-01 permits entities to elect certain optional expedients and exceptions when accounting for derivative contracts and certain hedging relationships affected by changes in the interest rates used for discounting cash flows, for computing variation margin settlements, and for calculating price alignment interest in connection with reference rate reform activities under way in global financial markets (the "discounting transition"). ASU 2021-01 is effective for the Company prospectively in any period through December 31, 2022 that a modification is made to the terms of the derivatives affected by the discounting transition. We do not believe the adoption of ASU 2021-01 will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.


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Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

We are exposed to a variety of market risks, changes in interest rates affecting the return on our investments and foreign currency fluctuations.

To manage the volatility related to the exposure to changes in interest rates, we have entered into a derivative financial instrument. Our objective is to reduce, where it is deemed appropriate to do so, fluctuations in earnings and cash flows associated with changes in interest rates. Our policies and practices are to use derivative financial instruments only to the extent necessary to manage exposures. We do not hold or issue derivative financial instruments for trading or speculative purposes.

Amounts reported in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) related to our derivative are reclassified to interest expense as interest is accrued on our variable-rate debt. Our derivative had a fair value of $1.8 million at December 31, 2021, comprised of $2.1 million included in Accrued expenses and other and $3.9 million included in Other assets on our consolidated balance sheet. Based upon projected forward rates, we estimate as of December 31, 2021 that $2.1 million may be reclassified as an increase to interest expense over the next twelve months.

At December 31, 2021, we had outstanding debt totaling $375.5 million. A hypothetical movement of plus or minus 50 basis points in the interest rate of our outstanding debt would have changed our interest expense by approximately $2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021.

Based on a hypothetical 10% adverse movement in all foreign currency exchange rates, our revenue and net loss for the year ended December 31, 2021 would have been adversely affected by approximately $25 million and $11 million, respectively, although the actual effects could differ materially from this hypothetical analysis.
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Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Ribbon Communications Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Ribbon Communications Inc. and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), stockholders' equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the "financial statements"). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (