UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549


FORM 10-K

x                              ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the year ended December 31, 2006

o                                 TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission File Number 000-30229

SONUS NETWORKS, INC.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

DELAWARE

 

04-3387074

(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. employer
identification no.)

 

7 Technology Park Drive, Westford, Massachusetts  01886

(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)

(978) 614-8100

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code

250 Apollo Drive, Chelmsford, Massachusetts 01824
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)


Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Common Stock $0.001

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o  No x

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o  No x

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes o  No x

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.  o

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer  x

Accelerated filer  o

Non-accelerated filer  o

 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o  No x

The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant was approximately $1,215,000,000 based on the closing price for the Common Stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on June 30, 2006. As of July 27, 2007, there were 257,465,110 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value, outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

None

 




EXPLANATORY NOTE

In this Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”), we are restating our consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2005 and for each of the years ended December 31, 2005 and 2004, and each of the quarters in 2005 and the first quarter of 2006, which are included in “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” in Item 8. This Form 10-K also reflects the restatement of selected financial data as of and for each of the years ended December 31, 2002 through 2005, which is included in “Selected Financial Data” in Item 6, and the fiscal years ended December 31, 2005 and 2004, which is included in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Item 7. Immediately prior to the filing of this Form 10-K, we filed Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended June 30, 2006 and September 30, 2006. Immediately after the filing of this Form 10-K, we will file a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2007. These Forms 10-Q contain restated financial information for the three and six months ended June 30, 2005, the three and nine months ended September 30, 2005 and the three months ended March 31, 2006.

Previously filed annual reports on Form 10-K and quarterly reports on Form 10-Q affected by the restatements have not been amended and should not be relied on.

The restatement of our consolidated financial statements reflects:

1.                stock-based compensation expense not previously recorded for certain stock option grants for which we used an incorrect measurement date for accounting purposes;

2.                stock-based compensation expense for certain grants that should have been recorded using variable accounting;

3.                tax-related adjustments resulting from the above errors in stock option accounting; and

4.                the recording of previously unrecorded adjustments not related to accounting for stock options that were previously deemed to be immaterial to our consolidated financial statements.

On May 25, 2006, in response to the recent focus on public company employee stock option granting practices and accounting, the Company in conjunction with the Audit Committee of its Board of Directors (the “Audit Committee”) voluntarily commenced a review of our stock option granting practices and accounting (the “Internal Review”). The Internal Review focused on several grants in the years 2000 through 2002 for which the grant dates appeared to have been on dates when our share price was trading near six month lows. As a result of the findings of the Internal Review, on August 3, 2006, our Board of Directors authorized the Board’s Audit Committee to conduct an expanded investigation (the “Audit Committee Investigation”) of our stock option granting practices from our initial public offering on May 25, 2000 (the “IPO”) through August 2006. The Audit Committee retained and was assisted by outside legal counsel and forensic accountants in conducting its investigation.

On October 23, 2006, the Audit Committee issued a report on its findings (the “Investigation Report”) that was presented to our Board of Directors. The following is a summary of the key findings:

·       Our stock granting and administration practices lacked adequate controls, processes and documentation during the period from May 2000, the date of our initial public offering, through December 2003;

·       The process by which members of the Compensation Committee formally approved stock option grants often involved the signing of a unanimous written consent (“UWC”). We used the date set forth in the UWC as the grant date and measurement date for accounting purposes. However, during the period from May 2000 to December 2003, there often was no clear documentation as to when the UWC was signed and returned to the Company. For certain grants, a UWC was signed weeks or even months after the grant date;

1




·       The measurement dates used for accounting purposes for a number of stock option grants, particularly during the period from May 2000 through December 2003, were not accurate because all the required granting actions were not completed as of the grant date;

·       Evidence suggests the probability that grant dates for several option grants from May 2000 through 2003 were selected by two former members of management with hindsight. There was no evidence from late 2004 forward, suggesting the probability that any dates for stock option grants were selected after the stated date of the grant with hindsight;

·       No current employee or director engaged in any willful or intentional misconduct; and

·       Beginning in August 2004, and continuing into 2005 and 2006, we implemented numerous policies and internal controls regarding option grants and significantly improved the practices and controls.

Responding to the findings of the Audit Committee Investigation, we performed a review of stock option grant measurement dates recorded for financial reporting purposes. We reassessed the measurement dates for all of our historical stock option grants and reviewed all available evidence for each option grant during the period from the IPO through December 31, 2005.

Our historical stock option grants fall under two broad categories: (a) major, company-wide grants made annually (“Annual Grants”) and (b) grants made throughout the year for new hires and employee recognition (“Batched Grants”). Prior to our IPO in May 2000, the Board of Directors or its Compensation Committee (“Compensation Committee”) approved option grants at meetings documented in meeting minutes. Subsequent to the IPO, the Compensation Committee would either approve stock option grants at meetings documented by meeting minutes or through a signed UWC, which were dated “as of” the date coinciding with the recorded stock option grant date. The following summarizes our historical practices for granting stock options:

May 2000 IPO Through Late 2004

It was our historical practice through late 2004 that our former Chief Financial Officer (“Former CFO”) would select the stock option grant dates. The Former CFO along with the Company’s Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) would present recommendations to the Compensation Committee regarding total pools of stock options for Annual Grants for executives and non-executive employees. There was no consistency in the Former CFO’s method for selection of the grant dates. The Compensation Committee then decided on the amount of stock options to be granted to each executive and a total pool of stock options to be allocated to non-executive employees by Company management. The Former CFO would submit a final list to the Compensation Committee for approval at a later date.

With the exception of stock options granted to new hires through 2000 (and certain new hires in 2001), Batched Grants had no consistent process or timing and were initiated by the Former CFO as the need arose. Our Former CFO selected the grant dates for the Batched Grants and presented the stock option grants to the Compensation Committee for approval at a later date. Again, there was no consistency in the method for selection of the grant dates. Stock option grants to new hires through 2000 (and certain new hires in 2001), were granted on the employment start dates. This practice changed in 2001 so that new hire stock options were granted in batches.

There was no regular practice and, in many cases, no supporting documentation regarding the actual signing dates of the UWCs by the members of the Compensation Committee. We lacked a documented set of procedures and controls for stock option grants through late 2004, including procedures regarding who had authority and responsibility to select dates for stock option grants, how the Compensation Committee would approve stock option grants, how grant dates were to be selected, and when lists containing recipients and amounts of options were to be considered final.

2




We also lacked a consistent or documented practice for entering grant information into the accounting and equity records and how and when such stock option grants were communicated to employees.

Late 2004 Through Current

In response to a restatement of our consolidated financial statements completed in July 2004, material weaknesses identified in our internal control over financial reporting and the hiring of new members of senior management, including a new CFO in January 2005, we commenced in late 2004 and continuing into 2006, implementing a number of improvements to our stock option granting practices and controls. Notwithstanding these improvements, we continued to have issues with inadequate documentation and processes resulting in revised measurement dates for certain grants through 2005.

We began limiting the use of UWCs to grant stock options commencing in 2004 and eliminated the use fully in 2006. Annual Grants are provided to the Compensation Committee in advance of the grant date and approved in meetings supported by meeting minutes. In March 2005, the Compensation Committee formally delegated the approval for certain Batched Grants to the CEO, who in turn formally delegated approval of certain stock options to other senior management. For all other Batched Grants, through June 2006, the Company presented UWCs with final lists for approval to the Compensation Committee in advance of the date when the grants were to be approved. The Compensation Committee retained the authority to grant options to executives and all other grants not subject to the delegated authority.

In June 2006, the Compensation Committee modified the March 2005 policy by requiring all New Hire Grants be effective on the 15th day of the month following a new employee’s start date. In addition to the delegation of authority for the aforementioned Batched Grants, the Compensation Committee has occasionally delegated authority to our CEO to make other grants with specific limitations.

All stock options requiring approval by the Compensation Committee are provided to the Compensation Committee in advance of the grant date and at meetings documented by approved minutes.

Measurement Date Methodology

Based on the available facts and circumstances surrounding our stock option granting practices, we adopted a methodology for determining the most likely measurement dates. We believe the application of this methodology indicated the date where the number of options granted to each employee and the exercise price were known with finality.

The Company adopted the following framework based on the facts and circumstances of each grant.

(1)         If the stock option grant was approved at a Board-level meeting, the date reflected in meeting minutes of the Company’s Board of Directors or Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors where the number of options for each recipient and the exercise price for the grant has been clearly approved was determined to be the most likely measurement date. Measurement dates for approximately 35% of the total number of grants were determined based on this method.

(2)         If the stock option grant was approved by UWC, the date of communication of the principal terms of the grant to the recipients if prior to the signature date on the UWC was determined to be the most likely measurement date. Measurement dates for approximately 42% of the total number of grants were determined based on this method.

3




(3)         If the stock option grant was approved by UWC and the Company did not have clear prior evidence of the date the principal terms of the grant were communicated to the recipients, the date of receipt of the last signature for the UWC provided there was clear evidence of the date the last signature was received was determined to be the most likely measurement date. Measurement dates for approximately 2% of the total number of grants were determined based on this method.

(4)         If the stock option grant was approved by UWC and the Company did not have clear evidence of the date the principal terms of the grant were communicated to the recipients or the date of receipt of the last signature on the UWC, the Company reviewed all other available evidence and used its judgment to determine the most likely measurement date. The additional available evidence included, but was not limited to:

a.                  the next date that the two Compensation Committee members were physically present at a Board-level meeting where the UWC may have been signed and the meeting occurred within a reasonable time period; and

b.                 the date by which at least 90% of the stock option grant was entered into the Company’s stock option administration system.

Measurement dates for approximately 6% of the total number of grants were determined based on the next date that the two Compensation Committee members were physically present at a Board-level meeting and approximately 15% when at least 90% of the stock option grant was entered into the Company’s stock option administration system.

After selecting a measurement date through one of the four steps in the above framework, the Company then determined if there were any changes to the individual grant recipients or amount of options granted after the selected measurement date. If there were no changes following the selected measurement date, then the measurement date would remain unchanged. If the Company identified changes following the selected measurement date, then the Company would evaluate whether the changes should delay the measurement date for the entire list of grants until the list became final or whether the changes should result in separate accounting for specific grants. Factors considered in evaluating whether it would be appropriate to delay the measurement date until the list was final included: 1) the frequency of any changes as well as the reason for any changes; 2) whether the changes were administrative in nature (corrections of errors for grants to which recipients would have been otherwise entitled); and 3) whether the changes reflected re-allocation of options among a broader range of recipients.

In applying the methodology, we revised the measurement dates for many grants which resulted in exercise prices that were less than the fair market value of the stock on the revised measurement dates. During our review we also identified errors in accounting for stock option awards where we did not appropriately account for modifications and circumstances in which we did not appropriately account for awards as variable. The correction of all these errors related to stock option accounting resulted in additional cumulative stock-based compensation charges of approximately $54.1 million from 2000 through 2005. In addition, additional stock-based compensation of approximately $11,000 was recorded in the three months ended March 31, 2006.

We acknowledge that many of our measurement date conclusions are dependent on the facts and circumstances of each stock option grant and involved the application of significant management judgment. Because the revised measurement date may not be the actual measurement date, we performed several analyses to compare the results of selecting measurement dates based upon the above described methodology to what would have resulted under different methodologies. In the first analysis, we considered that the measurement dates for all the stock option grants would be the last date the last required action for grants had taken place. In this analysis, the measurement date would be the date

4




approved at the Board or Compensation Committee meeting, the date of last receipt of the unanimous written consent or, if there was no evidence as to the receipt of the last signature, the date of the next board-level meeting at which the two members of the Compensation Committee were present following the preparation of a final list of grantees. Had we applied this alternate approach, the new measurement dates would have resulted in approximately $0.2 million less in cumulative stock-based compensation charges being recorded from 2000 through 2005.

For an additional analysis, we also considered what the results would have been had we selected measurement dates based upon the low, average and high closing prices of our stock within the periods from the originally recorded grant dates to the revised measurement dates. Using this approach, we would have recorded additional (less) cumulative stock-based compensation from 2000 through 2005 of $(52.3) million, $1.4 million, and $55.1 million by selecting measurement dates based upon the low, average and high closing prices during those periods, respectively. The additional (less) cumulative stock-based compensation from 2000 through 2005 under each category of our framework based upon the low, average and high closing prices during those periods is as follows (in millions):

Category

 

 

 

Low

 

Average

 

High

 

(1)

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

(2)

 

(43.2

)

 

4.4

 

 

50.0

 

(3)

 

(1.3

)

 

(0.3

)

 

0.8

 

(4)

 

(7.8

)

 

(2.7

)

 

4.3

 

 

 

$

(52.3

)

 

$

1.4

 

 

$

55.1

 

 

The amount of additional (less) cumulative stock-based compensation by year from 2000 through 2005 under categories two, three and four of our framework based upon the low, average and high closing prices during those periods is as follows (in millions):

 

 

Category 2

 

 

 

2000

 

2001

 

2002

 

2003

 

2004

 

2005

 

Total

 

Low

 

 

$

 

 

$

(13.4

)

$

(19.9

)

$

(5.4

)

$

(2.6

)

$

(1.9

)

$

(43.2

)

Average

 

 

$

 

 

$

6.5

 

$

2.0

 

$

(2.3

)

$

(1.0

)

$

(0.8

)

$

4.4

 

High

 

 

$

 

 

$

33.1

 

$

15.5

 

$

0.2

 

$

0.6

 

$

0.6

 

$

50.0

 

 

 

 

Category 3

 

 

 

2000

 

2001

 

2002

 

2003

 

2004

 

2005

 

Total

 

Low

 

 

$

 

 

$

(0.1

)

$

(0.7

)

$

(0.4

)

$

(0.1

)

 

$

 

 

$

(1.3

)

Average

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

$

(0.1

)

$

(0.2

)

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

(0.3

)

High

 

 

$

 

 

$

0.1

 

$

0.6

 

$

0.1

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

0.8

 

 

 

 

Category 4

 

 

 

2000

 

2001

 

2002

 

2003

 

2004

 

2005

 

Total

 

Low

 

$

 

$

(1.7

)

$

(0.8

)

$

(1.4

)

$

(2.2

)

$

(1.7

)

$

(7.8

)

Average

 

$

 

$

(0.6

)

$

(0.1

)

$

(0.6

)

$

(0.9

)

$

(0.5

)

$

(2.7

)

High

 

$

4.1

 

$

(2.9

)

$

1.3

 

$

0.3

 

$

0.7

 

$

0.8

 

$

4.3

 

 

We believe our methodology based on the best evidence available results in the most likely measurement dates for our stock option grants.

5




Tax-Related Adjustments

Withholding Taxes

In addition to the stock-based compensation charges, we also have recorded tax-related expense related to our stock option grants. We have determined that numerous stock options previously classified as incentive stock options (“ISO”) no longer meet the criteria for ISO tax status since they were issued in the money on the revised measurement date. The disqualification of ISO status resulted in the failure to withhold certain employee income and payroll taxes and, consequently, we have recorded additional expense, along with penalties and interest, in the periods of exercise. Tax-related adjustments related to the disqualification of the ISO status of stock options totaled approximately $1.0 million from 2001 through 2005 and approximately $0.2 million in the three months ended March 31, 2006.

Section 409A

Under Section 409A of the Internal Revenue Code (“Section 409A”), individuals who received option grants with an exercise price below the fair market value of the underlying stock at the revised measurement date will be subject to additional taxes and interest with respect to options that vest after December 31, 2004. Holders of these stock options will be required to recognize ordinary income at vesting. Pursuant to the interim Internal Revenue Service guidance, the income is calculated as the difference between the fair market value of the underlying stock and the exercise price as of December 31 of the year of vesting. The individual must also recognize, in each subsequent year until the option is fully exercised or expires, ordinary income equal to the excess of the fair market value of the underlying stock over the sum of the exercise price and any previously recorded income. In addition to ordinary income and employment taxes, an additional 20% penalty tax on the resulting ordinary income is levied on the individual, plus interest on any tax to be paid.

In the fourth quarter of 2006, we decided to reimburse our employees and former employees the additional taxes arising under Section 409A due to the exercise of certain discounted stock options in 2006. As a result, we recorded expenses of approximately $0.9 million in 2006. Of this amount, $0.4 million relates to employees and former employees who are subject to the disclosure requirements under Section 16 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and $0.5 million relates to all other employees and former employees (the “qualifying employees”). In February 2007, the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) published guidance allowing companies to voluntarily pay the IRS directly on their employees’ behalf any Section 409A taxes and interest by June 30, 2007. We notified the IRS of our intention to participate in this program and, accordingly, in June 2007 we paid $0.5 million to the applicable federal and state tax agencies on behalf of the qualifying employees.

In order to remedy the unfavorable personal tax consequences for those who have not exercised stock options subject to Section 409A, we intend to provide holders of these options the opportunity to amend their affected options. In December 2006, we entered into agreements with our directors and executive officers under which we will amend any affected stock options to increase the exercise price to the quoted market price on the revised measurement date and either provide cash payment in 2008 or issue restricted stock in 2007, at our discretion, to the option holder based on the difference in exercise price between the revised measurement date and original grant date. In February 2007, we determined we would provide a cash payment or restricted stock for the change in exercise price for the directors and officers with affected stock options. In addition, certain directors and officers agreed to waive such cash payment or restricted stock from us for the difference in exercise price of certain affected stock options. The agreements with our directors and executives resulted in additional stock-based compensation expense of approximately $16,000 in our consolidated financial statements in the fourth quarter of 2006 and will result in additional stock-based compensation expense of approximately $1.2 million to be recognized in the three months ended March 31, 2007.

6




For all other current employees, we are working on a program that we expect to announce following the filing of this Form 10-K, that will make the employees whole and should eliminate the Section 409A taxes associated with the affected stock options that have not yet been exercised. The modification of the stock options held by other current employees will result in additional stock-based compensation being recorded, commencing when the program is completed. We estimate the maximum aggregate cash payments to option holders under the program to be approximately $3.7 million.

For former employees who may exercise stock options in 2007 that are subject to Section 409A, we determined in the second quarter of 2007 to reimburse the option holders for taxes incurred and will record an expense in 2007 when and if the exercises occur.

Income Taxes

As a result of changes in the tax law in the UK in 2003, we should have recorded a deferred income tax benefit related to the stock-based compensation for options issued to our UK employees. As part of this restatement, we have recorded income tax benefits of $10,000 and $5,000 for fiscal 2004 and 2005, respectively. In addition, we recorded $693,000 as an adjustment to our January 1, 2004 opening Accumulated Deficit balance related to fiscal 2003. In addition to the change related to the UK, the components of the Company’s deferred income tax assets and valuation allowance have changed, but resulted in no significant net impact to the carrying value of the assets.

Other Adjustments

The restatement of prior year financial statements includes adjustments for other errors identified in subsequent periods. Such errors were not previously recorded as we concluded the amount of any such errors, both individually and in the aggregate, were not material to the consolidated financial statements of any period. These errors related to the timing of revenue recognition, the recording of cost of goods sold and certain operating expenses.

7




SONUS NETWORKS, INC.
FORM 10-K
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2006
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Item

 

 

 

Page

 

Part I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.

 

Business

 

 

9

 

 

1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

 

22

 

 

1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

 

36

 

 

2.

 

Properties

 

 

37

 

 

3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

 

37

 

 

4.

 

Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders

 

 

41

 

 

Part II

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

 

42

 

 

6.

 

Selected Financial Data

 

 

44

 

 

7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

 

50

 

 

7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

 

 

67

 

 

8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

 

68

 

 

9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

 

68

 

 

9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

 

68

 

 

9B.

 

Other Information

 

 

80

 

 

Part III

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

 

81

 

 

11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

 

84

 

 

12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

 

99

 

 

13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

 

102

 

 

14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

 

104

 

 

Part IV

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15.

 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

 

 

106

 

 

 

 

Signatures

 

 

107

 

 

 

 

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

 

F-1

 

 

 

 

Exhibit Index

 

 

 

 

 

 

8




PART I

Item 1.                BUSINESS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as all other reports filed with or furnished to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), are available free of charge through our Internet site (http://www.sonusnet.com) as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The public may read and copy any materials we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains an Internet site (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.

Overview

We are a leading provider of voice infrastructure solutions for wireline and wireless service providers. Our products are a new generation of carrier-class infrastructure equipment and software that enables voice services to be delivered over Internet Protocol (“IP”) packet-based networks. Our target customers include both traditional and emerging communications service providers, including long distance carriers, local exchange carriers, Internet service providers, wireless operators, cable operators, international telephone companies and carriers that provide services to other carriers. IP packet-based networks, which transport traffic in small bundles, or “packets,” offer a significantly more flexible, cost-effective and efficient means for providing communications services than existing circuit-based networks, designed years ago to primarily deliver telephone calls.

Our suite of voice infrastructure solutions allows wireline and wireless operators to build converged voice over IP (“VoIP”) networks. Our products are built on the same distributed, IP-based principles embraced by the IP Multimedia Subsystem (“IMS”) architecture, as defined by the Third Generation Partnership (“3GPP”) program. This IMS architecture is being accepted by network operators globally as the common approach for building converged voice, data, wireline and wireless networks. The IMS architecture is based primarily on IP packets and the SIP protocol, which has been the foundation of our products since our formation.

Our IMS-based solution product suite includes the GSX9000™ Open Services Switch, GSX4000™ Open Services Switch, SGX™ Signaling Gateway, the PSX™ Call Routing Server, the ASX™ Call Feature Server, the NBS™ Network Border Switch, the Sonus Insight™ Management System and the IMXRApplication Platform. Our products, designed for deployment as the platform of a service provider’s voice network, can significantly reduce the cost to build and operate voice services compared to traditional alternatives. Moreover, our products offer a powerful and open platform for network operators to increase their revenues through the creation and delivery of new and innovative voice and data services. Our infrastructure equipment and software can be rapidly and easily deployed, and readily expanded to accommodate growth in traffic volume. Our products also interoperate with network operators’ existing telephone infrastructure, allowing them to preserve the investment in their current networks.

We have been recognized by independent market research firms as a worldwide market share leader in several key segments of the carrier-class packet voice infrastructure equipment market. Our announced customers include many of the world’s major service providers including: AT&T (including Cingular Wireless, BellSouth and AT&T Inc.), Cable and Wireless International (Caribbean and Europe), Carphone Warehouse (Europe), Global Crossing, Jupiter Communications (J:COM) (Japan), KDDI (Japan), Level 3, NTT Communications (Japan), Qwest, Softbank Broadband (Japan), T-Systems International (a division of Deutsche Telekom Group), Verizon, Vonage, Willcom (Japan) and XO Communications. We sell our products principally through a direct sales force in the United States, Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA), Japan and Asia-Pacific. We have expanded our access to

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new geographies and into new markets through our relationships with Motorola, Embarq Logistics, and regional channel partners. We also collaborate with our customers to identify and develop new advanced services and applications that they can offer to their customers.

Following a period of restricted spending by communications providers, the telecommunications industry witnessed growth in 2006 with the investment in new IP-based and wireless infrastructure technologies. Over the last few years, VoIP has been widely accepted as the protocol on which next generation networks will be built. While the speed and extent of the adoption of carrier packet voice infrastructure products by large carriers remains uncertain, we believe that over time the market opportunity for packet voice solutions is substantial. Synergy Research Group projects that the market for service provider VoIP equipment and software will approximate $4 billion in 2008. Our objective is to capitalize on our early technology and market lead and build a premier franchise in packet-based voice infrastructure solutions. The following are key elements of our strategy:

·       leverage our technology leadership to achieve key service provider design wins;

·       continue to extend our technology platform from the core of the network to the access edge;

·       embrace the principles outlined by the 3GPP and deliver the industry’s most advanced IMS-ready product suite;

·       assist our customers’ ability to differentiate themselves by offering the industry’s most sophisticated application development platform and service creation environment;

·       expand our solutions to address emerging IP-based markets, such as network border switching and wireless switching;

·       expand our global sales, marketing, support and distribution capabilities;

·       grow our base of software applications and development partners;

·       actively contribute to the standards definition and adoption process; and

·       pursue strategic acquisitions and alliances.

Industry Background

The public telephone network is an integral part of our everyday lives. For most of its history, the telephone industry has been heavily regulated, which has slowed the evolution of its underlying switching and infrastructure technologies, limiting innovation in service offerings and the pricing of telephone services. Two global forces—deregulation and the expansion of the Internet—have revolutionized the public telephone network worldwide.

Deregulation of the telephone industry accelerated with the passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. The barriers that once restricted service providers to a specific geography or service offering, such as local or long distance services, are eroding. The opportunity created by opening up the telephone services market has encouraged new participants to enter the market and incumbent service providers to expand into new markets, both domestically as well as internationally.

Competition between new players and incumbents is driving down service prices. With limited ability to reduce the cost structure of the public telephone network, profit margins for traditional telephone services have declined. In response, service providers are seeking new, creative and differentiated services as a means to increase revenues and as an opportunity to reduce costs.

Simultaneously, the rapid adoption of the Internet and broadband connectivity has driven the dramatic growth of data traffic and the need for service providers to offer differentiated services to its customers. VoIP networks more efficiently fill available network bandwidth with packets of data and voice

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from many users. As the volume of data and voice traffic continues to increase with the growth of broadband access, service providers need to build large-scale, more efficient packet networks.

The Emergence of IMS

For the first time in the history of the telecommunications industry, both wireless and wireline network operators are converging on a standard architecture designed to deliver on this vision of a single communications network architecture. The IMS architecture is a set of principles defined by the 3GPP program that describes a standard way of building telecommunications networks. In an IMS environment network, switching elements are distributed and applications, including voice, are IP-based.

We believe significant opportunities exist in uniting separate, parallel networks into a new, integrated public network capable of transporting both voice and data traffic on wireless or wireline devices. IP architectures are more efficient at moving data, more flexible and reduce equipment and operating costs. Enormous potential savings can be realized by converging voice and data networks, as well as wireless and wireline networks, thereby reducing network operating costs and eliminating redundant or overlapping equipment purchases. Also, combining traditional voice services with Internet or web-based services in a single network is expected to enable new and powerful high-margin, revenue-generating service offerings such as voice virtual private networks, one-number/follow-me services, unified messaging, conferencing, prepaid and postpaid calling card services and sophisticated call centers and other IP voice services.

The public telecommunications network is large, highly complex and generates significant revenues, a substantial majority of which is derived from voice services. Given service providers’ substantial investment in, and dependence upon, traditional circuit-switched technology, their transition to VoIP and IMS architectures will be gradual.

Requirements for Voice Infrastructure Products for VoIP and IMS-based Networks

Users demand high levels of quality and reliability from the public telephone network and service providers require a cost-efficient network that enables new revenue-generating services. As a result, leading carrier packet voice infrastructure products are being designed to meet some or all of the following requirements:

IMS-ready architecture.   Increasingly, carriers recognize the benefit of voice infrastructure solutions that align with the IMS architecture and can serve as the foundation for building next-generation networks. The IMS architecture enables network operators to converge voice, video and other multimedia services to deliver innovative and compelling bundled solutions to consumers. Designed to standardize the delivery of IP services, IMS defines a standard that is distributed and supports interoperability among network components. Accordingly, solutions must allow service providers to seamlessly and cost-effectively migrate to the evolving IMS standards while maximizing their network investment by delivering converged multimedia services over their existing network.

Carrier-class performance.   Service providers operate complex, mission-critical networks demanding clear infrastructure requirements, including extremely high reliability, quality and interoperability. For example, service providers typically require equipment that complies with their 99.999% availability standard.

Compatibility with standards and existing infrastructure.   New infrastructure equipment and software must support the full range of telephone network standards, including signaling protocols such as SS7 or ISDN and international signaling variants, and various physical interfaces such as T1 and E1. It must also support data networking protocols such as IP and asynchronous transfer mode, or ATM, as well as telephony protocols such as SIP, SIP-I, SIP-T, MGCP and H.323. Infrastructure solutions must also seamlessly integrate with service providers’ existing operations support systems.

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Scalability and density.   Carrier voice infrastructure solutions face challenging scalability requirements. Service providers’ central offices typically support tens or even hundreds of thousands of simultaneous calls. In order to be economically attractive, the new infrastructure must compare favorably with existing networks in terms of cost per port, space occupied, power consumption and cooling requirements.

Intelligent software in an open and flexible platform.   The architecture of packet voice infrastructure solutions decouples the capabilities of traditional circuit-switched equipment into robust hardware elements and highly intelligent software platforms that provide control, signaling and service creation capabilities. This approach is designed to transform the closed, proprietary circuit-switched public telephone network into a flexible, open environment accessible to a wide range of software developers. The objective is to permit service providers and third-party vendors to develop and implement new applications independent of switch vendors. Moreover, the proliferation of independent software providers promises to drive the creation of innovative voice and data services that could expand service provider revenues.

Simple and rapid installation, deployment and support.   Infrastructure solutions must be easy to install, deploy, configure and manage. These attributes will enable rapid growth and effective management of dynamic and complex service provider networks.

The Sonus Solution

We develop, market and sell a comprehensive suite of IMS-ready voice infrastructure products with an architecture aligned with the principles of IMS that are purpose-built for the deployment and management of voice and data services over carrier packet networks. The Sonus solution consists of the following carrier-class products:

·       GSX9000™ Open Services Switch;

·       GSX4000™ Open Services Switch;

·       NBS™ Network Border Switch;

·       PSX™ Call Routing Server;

·       SGX™ Signaling Gateway;

·       ASX™ Call Feature Server;

·       IMXRApplication Platform; and

·       Sonus Insight Management System.

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These products are designed to offer high reliability, toll-quality voice, improved economics, interoperability, rapid deployment and an open architecture enabling the design and implementation of new services and applications. Like the IMS architecture, our products are based on an open distributed IP-based architecture. As shown in the following diagram, our existing products and products in development offer an IMS-ready solution:

GRAPHIC

Carrier-class performance.   Our products are designed to offer the highest levels of quality, reliability and interoperability, including:

·       full redundancy, enabling 99.999% availability;

·       voice quality equal or superior to that of today’s circuit-switched network;

·       system hardware designed for Network Equipment Building Standards, or NEBS Level 3, compliance;

·       network monitoring and provisioning designed for Operations System Modifications for the Integration of Network Elements, or OSMINE, compliance;

·       a complete set of service features, addressing those found in the existing voice network and extending them to offer greater flexibility; and

·       sophisticated network management and configuration capabilities.

Compatibility with industry standards and existing infrastructure.   Our products are designed to be compatible with applicable voice and data networking standards and interfaces, including:

·       SS7 and other telephone network signaling protocols, including international signaling variants, advanced services and simple call management and routing;

·       IP, ATM, Ethernet and optical data networking standards;

·       call signaling standards including SIP, SIP-I, SIP-T, MGCP and H.323 and others;

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·       voice coding standards such as G.711 and echo cancellation standard G.168; and

·       all common interfaces, including T1, T3, E1 and optical interfaces.

The Sonus solution is designed to interface with legacy circuit-switching equipment, supporting the transparent flow of calls and other information between the circuit and packet networks. As a result, our products allow service providers to migrate to a new packet voice infrastructure, while preserving their significant legacy infrastructure investments.

Cost effectiveness and high scalability.   The Sonus solution can be used to cost-effectively build packet-based switch configurations supporting a range from a few hundred calls to hundreds of thousands of simultaneous calls. In addition, the capital cost of our equipment is typically half that of traditional circuit-switched equipment. At the same time, our GSX Family of Open Services Switches offers unparalleled density, requires significantly less space than needed by typical circuit-switching implementations and requires significantly less power and cooling. This makes possible a significant reduction in expensive central office facilities cost and allows service providers to deploy our equipment in locations where traditional circuit switches would not be an option given the limited space and environmental services.

The GSX Family Open Services Switch can create central office space savings as shown below.

GRAPHIC

IMS architecture and flexible platform.   The Sonus architecture is built on the basic principles defined by the IMS architecture that is being accepted by network operators globally as the common approach for next generation networks. Our solution is based on a software-centric design and a flexible platform, allowing for the rapid development of new products and revenue-generating services. New services may be developed by us, by network operators themselves, or by any number of third parties including software developers and systems integrators. The Sonus IMS architecture also facilitates the creation of services that were previously not possible on the circuit-switched network. In addition, we have partnered with a number of third-party application software developers in our Open Services Partner AllianceSM, or OSPASM, to stimulate the growth of new applications available for our platform.

Ease of installation and deployment.   Our equipment and software can be installed and placed in service by our customers more quickly than circuit-switched equipment. By offering comprehensive testing, configuration and management software, we expedite the deployment process as well as the ongoing management and operation of our products. We believe that typical installations of our solution require just weeks from product arrival to final testing, thereby reducing the cost of deployment and the time to market for new services.

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The Sonus Strategy

Our objective is to capitalize on our early technology and market lead and build a premier franchise in packet-based carrier voice infrastructure solutions for wireline and wireless carriers. The following are key elements of our strategy:

Leverage our technology leadership to achieve key service provider design wins.   As one of the first companies to offer IMS-ready carrier-class packet voice infrastructure products, we have achieved key design wins with industry-leading service providers as they develop the architecture for their new voice networks. We expect service providers to select vendors that deliver leading technology and have the ability to maintain that technology leadership. Our equipment is an integral part of the network architecture and achieving design wins will enable us to expand our business as these networks are deployed. By working closely with our customers as they deploy these networks, we gain valuable knowledge regarding their requirements, positioning us to continue to develop product enhancements and extensions that address the evolving requirements of network operators globally.

Continue to extend our technology platform from the core of the network to the access edge.   Our robust and sophisticated technology platform has been designed to operate in the core of the largest telecommunications networks in the world. The migration to VoIP began at the core of network operators’ networks and is evolving toward the edge (or access segment) of their networks. From our leadership position in the long distance or trunking market, we are expanding into the access segments of the network. We support multiple network operators’ applications in a single platform. These applications include long distance/international calling, tandem switching, network border switching, business PBX access, residential access, H.323 termination, direct voice over broadband and enhanced services. This approach will allow our customers to design and execute a coordinated migration and expansion strategy as they build entirely new networks or transition from their legacy circuit-switched infrastructure to a converged, IMS-ready architecture. We have deployed our ASX Feature Server to provide full-featured access functionality with AT&T, EarthLink, Marcatel, Qwest, China Netcom, NTT Communications, Jupiter Communications, Cable and Wireless International, my people and CarPhone Warehouse.

Embrace the principles outlined by the 3GPP and deliver the industry’s most advanced IMS-ready product suite.   When we were founded in 1997, a standard architecture for IP-based networks did not yet exist. In order to deliver on the full promise of IP-based technologies, we developed one. Today’s IMS architecture leverages many of the same distributed, IP-based principles that we used to develop our product framework. As a result, our customers do not need to undergo architectural upgrades to achieve IMS-compliance, but may stay current with emerging IMS protocols through upgrades to future releases of our software. This evolutionary path is one of our key competitive differentiators. In recognition of our leading position in IMS, Frost and Sullivan awarded us a 2006 Technology Innovation & Leadership of the Year Award.

Expand and broaden our customer base by targeting specific market segments, such as wireless operators.   We plan to leverage our early success to penetrate new customer segments. We believe new and incumbent service providers will build out their VoIP infrastructures at different rates. The next-generation service providers, who are relatively unencumbered by legacy equipment, have been among the initial purchasers of our equipment and software. Other newer entrants, including wireless operators, cable operators and Internet service providers, or ISPs, have also been early adopters of our products. Incumbents, including interexchange carriers, or IXCs, Regional Bell Operating Companies, or RBOCs, and international operators are also adopting packet voice technologies over time.

Assist our customers’ ability to differentiate themselves by offering the industry’s most sophisticated application development platform and service creation environment.   The competitive landscape in the communications industry has changed dramatically in the wake of the 1996 Telecommunications Act, the introduction of new wireless, broadband and IP-based technologies. Today’s communications providers face

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unprecedented challenges in attracting and retaining customers and driving revenue streams. One approach to win new customers and foster loyalty among existing customers is to introduce new services that redefine how users communicate. Our technology drives down the cost of experimentation, stimulating new innovation. With IP-based technologies and our IMX Application Platform, our customers have powerful tools at their disposal for the development, integration, and deployment of exciting new services.

Expand our solutions to address emerging IP-based markets, such as network border switching.   There are three primary market factors necessitating enhanced network security features beyond basic Session Border Controllers (SBCs) that offer security and call control where multiple IP-based networks connect. First, network operators looking to grow their markets by expanding their presence or offering new services are pairing with other networks on a much larger scale. Secondly, the recent flurry of mergers and acquisitions among network operators has created heterogeneous networks that need to be integrated in a secure manner. Lastly, more and more network operators are responding to consumer demand for services that connect to the public Internet, which creates a unique set of obstacles. To address these emerging dynamics, we deliver a comprehensive Network Border Switching solution as an integrated element in our network solution that offers enhanced security and control over interconnection, while reducing cost and complexity. Our Network Border Switching solution supports a full range of IP signaling protocols including SIP, SIP-I, SIP-T and H.323 as well as fax interworking and codecs standards. The Sonus Network Border Switch is in deployment at several large service providers.

Expand our global sales, marketing, support and distribution capabilities.   Becoming the primary supplier of carrier packet voice infrastructure solutions will require a strong worldwide presence. We are broadening our sales, marketing, support and distribution capabilities to address this need. We have established offices throughout the United States, China, India, Japan, Singapore, Germany, the Czech Republic, France, and in the United Kingdom. In addition, we have augmented our global direct sales effort by partnering with Embarq Logistics in the United States, international distribution partners in key markets around the world, and with our global partner, Motorola. As a carrier-class solution provider, we are making a significant investment in professional services and customer support.

Grow our base of software applications and development partners.   We have established and promote a partner program, the Open Services Partner Alliance, or OSPA, which brings together a broad range of development partners to provide our customers with a variety of advanced services, application options and interoperability testing. Our OSPA partners, many of whom have completed interoperability testing with Sonus solutions, include a number of application developers. We have also recently launched a technology certification program in tandem with the University of New Hampshire InterOperability Lab to meet the growing number of requests by third party vendors that wish to integrate with the Sonus platform.

Actively contribute to the standards definition and adoption process.   To advance our technology and market leadership, we will continue to lead and contribute to standards bodies such as the IMS Forum, formerly the International Packet Communications Consortium, the Internet Engineering Task Force and the International Telecommunications Union. The definition of standards for carrier packet voice infrastructure is in an early stage and we intend to drive these standards to meet the requirements for an open, accessible, scalable and powerful IMS infrastructure.

Pursue strategic acquisitions and alliances.   On April 13, 2007, we acquired privately-held Zynetix Limited (“Zynetix”), a designer of innovative Global System for Mobile Communications (“GSM”) infrastructure solutions. (See “Recent Developments” of Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Note 12, “Subsequent Events” of the Notes to the Financial Statements.) We intend to expand our products and services through other selected acquisitions and alliances. These may include acquisitions of complementary products, technologies and businesses that further enhance our technology leadership or product breadth. We also believe that teaming with

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companies providing complementary products or services will enable us to bring greater value to our customers and extend our lead over competitors.

Sonus Products

GSX9000 Open Services Switch

The Sonus GSX9000 Open Services Switch (“GSX9000”) enables voice traffic to be transported over packet networks. The GSX9000 is compliant with NEBS Level 3, the requirement for telecommunications equipment used in the North American Public Switched Telecommunications Network. Its carrier-class hardware is designed to provide 99.999% availability with no single point of failure. The GSX9000 offers optional full redundancy and full hot-swap capability and upgrade to replace boards without turning off the equipment. It is powered from -48VDC sources standard in central offices and attaches to the central office timing network. The basic building block of a GSX9000 is a shelf. Each shelf is 28” high, mounts in a standard 19” or 23” rack and provides 16 slots for server and adapter modules. The first two slots are reserved for management modules, while the other 14 slots may be used for any mix of other module types. It supports the following interfaces:

·T1;

·T3;

·E1;

·OC3;

·100BaseT;

·1000BaseT; and

·OC12c/STM-4.

GRAPHIC

 

The GSX9000 is designed to deliver voice quality equal, or superior, to that of the legacy circuit-switched public network. It is designed to support the multiple encoding schemes used in circuit switches such as G.711 and delivers a number of other voice compression algorithms. It also is designed to provide world-class echo cancellation, conforming to the latest G.168 standard, on every circuit port. It automatically disables echo cancellation when it detects a modem signal. The GSX9000 is also designed to minimize delay, further enhancing perceived voice quality. The GSX9000 scales to the very large configurations required by major service providers. A single GSX9000 shelf can support up to 22,000 simultaneous calls. A single GSX9000, consisting of multiple shelves, can support 100,000 or more simultaneous calls. The GSX9000 is designed to operate with our PSX Call Routing Server and with softswitches and network products offered by other vendors.

GSX4000 Open Services Switch

The GSX4000 Open Services Switch (“GSX4000”) is designed to deliver carrier-class functionality, reliability and manageability. The GSX4000 was developed specifically for service providers to enable them to expand the reach of their core VoIP networks into new applications, new geographic regions or to deploy IP-based multimedia services. Based on the award-winning GSX9000, the GSX4000 allows service providers to cost-effectively extend the reach of their network boundaries with the same carrier-class functionality that is the hallmark of our products.

The GSX4000 allows service providers to realize the benefits of the GSX9000 on a platform that is right-sized for their immediate needs. By delivering the proven reliability of the GSX9000 in a smaller form factor, service providers are able to cost-effectively support a highly distributed subscriber base or

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create an initial presence in a large market. The GSX family provides an expansion path from several hundred ports to several million ports to meet the demand of the worldwide market. The GSX4000 was introduced with 24 T1/E1 interfaces. Further, by utilizing advanced digital signal processing (DSP) technology and software deployed extensively in service provider networks, the GSX4000 is purpose-built for deployments within service providers’ networks worldwide.

PSX Call Routing Server

The PSX Call Routing Server (“PSX”) is the primary module of our IMS architecture and plays an integral role in all of our solutions. The PSX, which serves as the policy and database element in the IMS architecture, provides the network intelligence, including call control, service selection and routing. The PSX is based on a modular architecture that is designed for high performance and scalability, as well as interoperability with third-party gateways, devices and services. The PSX supports many industry protocols including SIP, SIP-I, SIP-T and H.323 for communications with a variety of IP network devices. By supporting the H.323 protocol, the PSX can control and access H.323-based gateways and networks. The PSX supports third-party application servers using the SIP protocol and third-party softswitches with the SIP-T and SIP-I protocols.

SGX Signaling Gateway

The SGX Gateway (“SGX”) provides an integrated SS7 solution for our IMS architecture. The SGX is a SS7/C7 signaling gateway that interconnects Sonus-based packet solutions with legacy SS7 networks. SS7/C7 signaling is the global standard for telecommunications procedures and protocol by which network elements in the public switched telephone network exchange information over a digital signaling network to effect wireless and wireline call setup, routing and control. The SGX Gateway is deployed on a NEBS-compliant computing platform with T1, E1 and V.35 interfaces and supports a variety of international signaling variants. The SGX Gateway can be deployed separately or with the GSX9000 and the PSX Server in configurations that meet a wide range of network requirements.

ASX Feature Server

The ASX Call Feature Server (“ASX”) provides functionality that extends our IMS architecture to the access part of the network. The ASX is a call agent that handles call setup and basic call features. The ASX provides local area calling features for residential and enterprise markets and regulatory features such as emergency services and lawful intercept. The ASX connects to and can control a variety of network endpoints, such as Integrated Access Devices, gateways, next-generation Digital Loop Carriers and other IP endpoints. The ASX allows the same features to run over many different transport technologies including analog lines, Ethernet, voice over DSL, voice over cable or fixed wireless infrastructure. This flexibility enables a multitude of applications including residential access, cable access and business services such as Centrex and voice virtual private networks. The ASX also enables new features available only on packet-based networks such as unified messaging, multi-media conferencing and desktop integration capabilities.

Sonus Network Border Switch

The Sonus Network Border Switch (“NBS”) is based on the GSX product family and delivers secure connections to other carriers’ and enterprises’ IP networks. With the proliferation of IP-based networks and industry convergence around IMS architectures, the ability to securely interconnect between networks has become paramount. The NBS is one of the only carrier-class solutions available today that provides IP-to-IP border control and PSTN media gateway capabilities—integrating security, session control and media control.

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Sonus IMX Application Platform

The Sonus IMX Application Platform (“IMX”) is a web-based multimedia environment that enables wireline and wireless service providers to develop, integrate, launch, and manage enhanced telecommunication applications and services. The IMX combines Internet and telephony application models, enabling the creation and delivery of voice, video, and data services in a scalable, standards-based platform. By providing the ability to integrate with a service provider’s wireline or wireless network, this platform facilitates the development of new revenue-generating applications, improves time to market, and streamlines the delivery of existing or third-party next-generation services.

Sonus Insight Management System

The Sonus Insight Management System (“Sonus Insight”) is a complete, web-based management system designed to simplify the operation of carrier-class packet voice networks. Sonus Insight includes the Element Management System, the DataStream Integrator, the Subscriber Management System, the Network Traffic Manager and the Sonus Insight Developer’s Kit, that together provide comprehensive configuration, provisioning, security, alarm reporting, performance data and billing mediation capabilities. Sonus Insight integrates with service providers’ existing back-office systems, and offers many tools that enhance and consolidate management functions, allowing service providers to streamline many of today’s labor-intensive processes. Sonus Insight scales to support hundreds of switches and concurrent users, and is based on industry standards and protocols to facilitate management from any location worldwide.

Customer Support and Professional Services

Our comprehensive SonusCARESM technical customer support and professional services capabilities are an important element of our solution for customers. SonusCARE covers the full network lifecycle: planning, design, installation and operations. We help our customers create or revise their business plans and design their networks and also provide the following:

·  turnkey network installation services;

·  system integration and testing;

·  24-hour technical support; and

·  educational services to customer personnel on the installation, operation and maintenance of our equipment.

We have technical assistance centers in Westford, Massachusetts, Tokyo, Japan and Prague, Czech Republic. The technical assistance centers provide customers with around-the-clock technical support, as well as periodic updates to our software and product documentation. We offer our customers a variety of service plans. We also have established customer test and support centers in Richardson, Texas and Bangalore, India, and have established a customer support center in Prague, Czech Republic.

A key differentiator of our support activities is our professional services group, many members of which hold advanced technical degrees in electrical engineering or related disciplines. We offer a broad range of professional services, including sophisticated network deployment, assistance with logistics and project management support. We also maintain a customer support laboratory in which customers can test our products for their specific applications and in which they can gain an understanding of the applications enabled by the converged network. Our approach to professional services is designed to ensure that our products are integrated into our customers’ networks to meet their specific needs and that these customers realize the maximum value from their networking technology investments. At December 31, 2006, our customer support and professional services organization consisted of 235 employees.

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Customers

Our target customer base includes long distance carriers, local exchange carriers, ISPs, wireless operators, cable operators, international telephone companies and carriers that provide services to other carriers. We have shipped products to customers including AT&T, Cable and Wireless International (Caribbean and Europe), Carphone Warehouse (Europe), Global Crossing, Jupiter Communications (J:COM) (Japan), KDDI (Japan), Level 3, NTT Communications (Japan), Qwest, Softbank Broadband (Japan), T-Systems International (a division of Deutsche Telekom Group), Verizon, Vonage, Willcom (Japan) and XO Communications.

For the year ended December 31, 2006, three customers, Cingular Wireless (now AT&T Wireless) (“Cingular”), KDDI Corporation and Level 3 each accounted for more than 10% of our revenue. These customers accounted for approximately 43% of our revenue in the aggregate in 2006. For the year ended December 31, 2005, one customer, Cingular, contributed more than 10% of our revenue and approximately 28% of our revenue in the aggregate. For the year ended December 31, 2004, two customers, Qwest Communications and Global Crossing, each accounted for more than 10% of our revenue. These customers accounted for approximately 29% of our revenue in the aggregate in 2005.

Sales and Marketing

We sell our products principally through a direct sales force and, in some markets, through or with the assistance of distributors and resellers, such as IBIL (Malaysia), Nissho Electronics Corporation (Japan), NK Networks (Central Europe), PT Abhimata Citra Abadi (Indonesia), Sumitomo Corporation (Japan), TNN (Israel) and Nvision (Russia). For geographic information, including revenue from customers, a measure of profit or loss and total assets for the last three fiscal years, see our consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-K, including Note 1 thereto. In 2004, we established an original equipment manufacturer relationship with Motorola, Inc. In 2006, we established a reseller relationship with Embarq Logistics to resell our products in the United States. We intend to establish additional relationships with selected original equipment manufacturers and other marketing partners in order to serve particular markets or geographies and provide our customers with opportunities to purchase our products in combination with related services and products.

At December 31, 2006, our sales and marketing organization consisted of 155 employees located in sales and support offices in the United States and around the world.

Research and Development

We believe that strong product development capabilities are essential to our strategy of enhancing our core technology, developing additional applications, incorporating that technology into new products and maintaining comprehensive product and service offerings. Our research and development process is driven by the availability of new technology, market data and customer feedback. We have invested significant time and resources in creating a structured process for undertaking all product development projects. In 2005, we delivered product enhancements in our trunking and access products, voice over broadband, network border switching, wireless and network management. We are developing and plan to introduce new products to address market and customer needs. Our research and development expenses were $55.4 million, $47.6 million and $38.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2006, 2005 and 2004, respectively.

We have assembled a team of highly skilled engineers with significant telecommunications and networking industry experience. Our engineers have experience in, and have been drawn from, leading wireline and wireless telecommunications equipment suppliers, computer data networking and multimedia companies. At December 31, 2006, we had 354 employees responsible for research and development, of which 309 were software and quality assurance engineers and 30 were hardware engineers. Our

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engineering effort is focused on wireless product development, new applications and network access features, new network interfaces, improved scalability, interoperability, quality, reliability and next generation technologies. We maintain research and development offices in Massachusetts, New Jersey, Texas and Virginia in the United States, Swindon, United Kingdom and Bangalore, India. We have made, and intend to continue to make, a substantial investment in research and development.

Competition

The market for carrier packet voice infrastructure solutions is intensely competitive worldwide, subject to rapid technological change and significantly affected by new product introductions, changing customer demands, industry consolidation and other market activities of industry participants. We expect competition to persist and intensify in the future. Our primary sources of competition include vendors of networking and telecommunications equipment, such as Cisco Systems, Ericsson, Alcatel-Lucent, NEC, Nortel Networks and Nokia Siemens. Some of our competitors have significantly greater financial resources than we do and are able to devote greater resources to the development, promotion, sale and support of their products. In addition, these competitors have more extensive customer bases and broader customer relationships than we do, including relationships with our potential customers. Other smaller and typically private companies are also focusing on similar market opportunities.

In order to compete effectively, we must deliver innovative products that:

·       provide extremely high network reliability and voice quality;

·       scale easily and efficiently;

·       interoperate with existing network designs and other vendors’ equipment;

·       provide effective network management;

·       are accompanied by comprehensive customer support and professional services; and

·       provide a cost-effective and space-efficient solution for service providers.

Intellectual Property

Our success and ability to compete are dependent on our ability to develop and maintain our technology and operate without infringing on the proprietary rights of others. We rely on a combination of patent, trademark, trade secret and copyright law and contractual restrictions to protect the proprietary aspects of our technology. These legal protections afford only limited protection for our technology. We presently hold nine U.S. patents with expiration dates ranging from April 2016 through May 2024, and have nineteen patent applications pending in the United States, one of which is provisional. In addition, we hold five foreign patents, each of which expires in June 2019, and have ten patent applications pending abroad. We cannot be certain that additional patents will be granted based on these pending applications. We seek to protect our intellectual property by:

·       protecting our source and object code for our software, documentation and other written materials under trade secret and copyright laws;

·       licensing our software pursuant to signed license agreements, which impose restrictions on others’ ability to use our software; and

·       seeking to limit disclosure of our intellectual property by requiring employees and consultants with access to our proprietary information to execute confidentiality agreements.

We have incorporated third-party licensed technology into our current products. From time to time, we may be required to license additional technology from third parties to develop new products or product

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enhancements. Third-party licenses may not be available or continue to be available to us on commercially reasonable terms. The inability to maintain or re-license any third-party licenses required in our current products, or to obtain any new third-party licenses to develop new products and product enhancements, could require us to obtain substitute technology of lower quality or performance standards or at greater cost, and delay or prevent us from making these products or enhancements, any of which could seriously harm the competitiveness of our products.

Manufacturing

Currently, we outsource the manufacturing of our products. Our contract manufacturer provides comprehensive manufacturing services, including assembly and certain tests of our products and procurement of component materials on our behalf. We believe that outsourcing our manufacturing will enable us to conserve working capital, allow for greater flexibility in meeting changes in demand and to be more responsive in delivering products to our customers. At present, we purchase products from our outside contract manufacturer on a purchase order basis.

We and our contract manufacturer currently purchase several key components of our products, including commercial digital signal processors, from single or limited sources. We purchase these components on a purchase order basis.

In 2006, we consolidated our manufacturing to a single contract manufacturer. We also intend to move our contract manufacturing to a lower cost, offshore facility, which we expect will lower our total cost of manufacturing. At December 31, 2006, we had 23 employees responsible for supply chain management, business process improvement, worldwide procurement, order fulfillment, product quality and technical operations.

Employees

At December 31, 2006, we had a total of 850 employees, including 354 in research and development, 155 in sales and marketing, 235 in customer support and professional services, 23 in manufacturing, 40 in finance and 43 in administration. Our employees are not represented by any collective bargaining agreement. We believe our relations with our employees are good.

Additional Information

We were incorporated in August 1997 as a Delaware corporation. Our principal executive offices are located at 7 Technology Park Drive, Westford, MA 01886. Our telephone number is 978-614-8100 at our principal executive offices.

ITEM 1A.        RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below before buying our common stock. If any of the following risks actually occurs, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you may lose all or part of your investment.

The investigation of our historical stock option practices and the restatement of our prior financial statements may require us to incur substantial expenses and direct our management’s attention from our business, which may impact our business, financial position and results of operations and the trading price of our common stock.

Our internal review and our Audit Committee’s investigation into our historical stock option practices and accounting have required us to incur substantial expenses for legal, accounting, tax and other professional services, have diverted management’s attention from our business, and could in the future harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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While we believe we have made appropriate judgments in determining the correct measurement dates for our stock option grants, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) may disagree with the manner in which we have accounted for and reported, or not reported, the financial impact. Accordingly, there is a risk we may have to further restate our historical financial statements, amend prior filings with the SEC, or take other actions not currently contemplated.

Matters related to the investigation into our historical stock option granting practices and the restatement of our financial statements may result in additional litigation, regulatory proceedings and government enforcement actions for which we may be required to pay damages or penalties or have other remedies imposed.

Our historical stock option granting practices and the restatement of our financial statements have exposed us to greater risks associated with litigation, regulatory proceedings and government enforcement action. For more information regarding our current litigation and related inquiries, please see Part I, Item 3 “Legal Proceedings” as well as the other risk factors related to litigation set forth in this section. We have provided the results of our internal review and investigation to the SEC, which has notified us of a formal order of private investigation. We have responded to requests for documents and additional information and we intend to continue to cooperate with the SEC. No assurance can be given regarding the outcomes from litigation, regulatory proceedings or government enforcement actions relating to our past stock option practices. The resolution of these matters will be time-consuming, expensive, and may distract management from the conduct of our business. Furthermore, if we are subject to adverse findings in litigation, regulatory proceedings or government enforcement actions, we could be required to pay damages or penalties or have other remedies imposed, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, which, if not remedied effectively, could have an adverse effect on the trading price of our common stock and impair our ability to timely file our SEC reports or otherwise seriously harm our business.

Through, in part, the documentation, testing and assessment of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to the rules promulgated by the SEC under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and Item 308 of Regulation S-K, Management has concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures and our internal control over financial reporting had material weaknesses as of December 31, 2006. We have taken certain actions to address those material weaknesses. Our inability to remedy such material weaknesses promptly and effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as impair our ability to meet our quarterly and annual reporting requirements in a timely manner. Prior to the elimination of these material weaknesses, there remains risk that the transitional controls on which we currently rely will fail to be sufficiently effective, which could result in a material misstatement of our financial position or results of operations and require a restatement. In addition, even if we are successful in strengthening our controls and procedures, such controls and procedures may not be adequate to prevent or identify irregularities or facilitate the fair presentation of our financial statements or SEC reporting.

Failure or circumvention of our controls and procedures could seriously harm our business.

As described in Item 9A of this Form 10-K, we have made significant changes in our internal control over financial reporting and our disclosure controls and procedures. Any system of controls, however well designed and operated, is based in part on certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable, and not absolute, assurances that the objectives of the system are met. The failure or circumvention of our controls, policies and procedures could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.

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We face risks related to securities litigation that could result in significant legal expenses and settlement or damage awards.

We have been named as a defendant in a number of securities class action and derivative lawsuits. We are generally obliged, to the extent permitted by law, to indemnify our current and former directors and officers who are named as defendants in these lawsuits. Defending against existing and potential litigation may require significant attention and resources of management. Regardless of the outcome, such litigation will result in significant legal expenses. If our defenses are ultimately unsuccessful, or if we are unable to achieve a favorable settlement, we could be liable for large damage awards that could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.

Our historical stock option practices and the restatement of our prior financial statements have exposed us to greater risks associated with securities litigation. Several derivative actions were filed against certain current and former directors and officers based on allegations relating to our historical stock option practices. We may be subject to additional litigation arising in relation to our historical stock option practices and the restatement of our prior period financial statements.

The limitations of our director and officer liability insurance may require us to pay significant legal expenses and settlement or damage awards.

Our director and officer liability insurance policies provide only limited liability protection relating to the securities class action and derivative lawsuits against us and certain of our officers and directors. If these policies do not adequately cover expenses and certain liabilities relating to these lawsuits, our results of operations and our financial position could be materially harmed. The facts underlying the lawsuits have made director and officer liability insurance extremely expensive for us, and may make such insurance coverage unavailable for us in the future. Increased premiums could materially harm our financial results in future periods. The inability to obtain this coverage due to its unavailability or prohibitively expensive premiums would make it more difficult to retain and attract officers and directors and potentially expose us to self-funding any future liabilities ordinarily mitigated by director and officer liability insurance.

If we are not current in our SEC filings, we will face several adverse consequences.

From August 9, 2006 through August 2, 2007, we were not current in our SEC filings. If we are unable to remain current in our SEC filings, we will not be able to have a registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933, covering a public offering of securities, declared effective by the SEC, and we will not be able to make offerings pursuant to existing registration statements (including registration statements on Form S-8 covering employee stock plans), or pursuant to certain “private placement” rules of the SEC under Regulation D to any purchasers not qualifying as “accredited investors.” In addition, our affiliates will not be able to sell our securities pursuant to Rule 144 under the Securities Act. Finally, we will not be eligible to use a “short form” registration statement on Form S-3 until August 2, 2008 and we have lost our status as a “well known seasoned issuer,” including the registration advantages associated with such status. These restrictions may impair our ability to raise capital in the public markets should we desire to do so, and to attract and retain key employees.

Our common stock may be delisted from the NASDAQ Global Select Market and transferred to the National Quotation Service Bureau (“Pink Sheets”), which may, among other things, reduce the price of our common stock and the levels of liquidity available to our stockholders.

On August 2, 2007, we filed the Second Quarter Form 10-Q, the Third Quarter Form 10-Q, this 2006 Form 10-K and will file the First Quarter Form 10-Q with the SEC. We consider that the filing of these reports has remedied our non-compliance with Marketplace Rule 4310(c)(14), subject to NASDAQ’s affirmative completion of its compliance protocols and its notification to us accordingly. However, if

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NASDAQ disagrees with our position or if the SEC disagrees with the manner in which we have accounted for and reported, or not reported, the financial impact of past stock option grants, there could be further delays in filing subsequent SEC reports or other actions that might result in delisting of our common stock from the NASDAQ Global Select Market.

In August 2006, we received a NASDAQ Staff Determination letter stating that, as a result of the delayed filing of our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2006 (the “Second Quarter Form 10-Q”), we were not in compliance with the filing requirements for continued listing as set forth in the Marketplace Rule 4310(c)(14) and were therefore subject to delisting from the NASDAQ Global Select Market. In November 2006, we received an additional letter from NASDAQ of similar substance relating to our Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2006 (the “Third Quarter Form 10-Q”). In December 2006, the NASDAQ Listing Qualifications Panel granted our request for continued listing, provided that we file the Second Quarter Form 10-Q, the Third Quarter Form 10-Q and any required restatements with the SEC on or before February 12, 2007. In February 2007, we received a notice from the NASDAQ Listing and Hearing Review Council which advised us that any delisting determination by the NASDAQ Listing Qualifications Panel has been stayed pending further review by the Review Council. In March 2007, we received a NASDAQ Staff Determination letter stating we were not in compliance with the continued listing requirements due to the delayed filing of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2006 (the “2006 Form 10-K”). On May 14, 2007, we received a NASDAQ Staff Determination letter stating that we were not in compliance with the continued listing requirements due to the delayed filing our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2007 (the “First Quarter Form 10-Q”). On May 10, 2007, we received a letter from NASDAQ that the NASDAQ Listing and Hearing Review Council had granted us an exception to demonstrate compliance with the continued listing requirements until June 26, 2007. On June 25, 2007, we received a letter from NASDAQ informing us that the NASDAQ Board of Directors had called for review the decision of the NASDAQ Listing and Hearing Review Council and granted a stay of delisting pending further review by the Board in July 2007. We received a letter dated July 18, 2007 from NASDAQ that the NASDAQ Listing and Hearing Review Council had granted us an exception to demonstrate compliance with the continued listing requirements until September 17, 2007.

In addition, if we fail to timely file all of our future periodic reports under the Exchange Act, our common stock may be delisted from the NASDAQ Global Select Market and subsequently would trade on the Pink Sheets. The trading of our common stock on the Pink Sheets may reduce the price of our common stock and the levels of liquidity available to our stockholders. Our delisting from the NASDAQ Global Select Market and transfer to the Pink Sheets may also result in other negative implications, including the potential loss of confidence by suppliers, customers and employees, the loss of institutional investor interest and fewer business development opportunities.

Recent rulemaking by the Financial Accounting Standards Board requires us to expense equity compensation given to our employees and may reduce our ability to effectively utilize equity compensation to attract and retain employees.

We historically have used stock options as a significant component of our employee compensation program in order to align employees’ interests with the interests of our stockholders, encourage employee retention, and provide competitive compensation packages. The Financial Accounting Standards Board has adopted changes that require companies to record a charge to earnings for employee stock option grants and other equity incentives effective January 1, 2006, which we have adopted. By causing us to incur significantly increased compensation costs, such accounting changes may cause us to reduce the availability and amount of equity incentives provided to employees, which may make it more difficult for us to attract, retain and motivate key personnel.

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In addition, in order to eliminate the compensation expense associated with unvested employee stock options with an exercise price of $4.00 or greater at that time, in December 2005, we accelerated the vesting on the majority of these options. The acceleration of these unvested options may affect our ability to retain key personnel.

We expect that a majority of our revenues will be generated from a limited number of customers and we will not be successful if we do not grow our customer base.

To date, we have shipped our products to a limited number of customers. We expect that in the foreseeable future, the majority of our revenues will continue to depend on sales of our products to a limited number of customers. Three customers each contributed more than 10% of our revenues in fiscal 2006, or approximately 43% of our revenues in the aggregate. One customer contributed approximately 28% of our revenues in fiscal 2005. Two customers each contributed more than 10%, or approximately 29% in the aggregate, of our revenues in fiscal 2004. Our future success will depend on our ability to attract additional customers beyond our current limited number. The growth of our customer base could be adversely affected by:

·       acquisitions of or by our customers;

·       customer unwillingness to implement our new voice infrastructure products or renew contracts as they expire;

·       potential customer concerns with selecting an emerging telecommunications equipment vendor;

·       delays or difficulties that we may incur in completing the development and introduction of our planned products or product enhancements;

·       further deterioration in the general financial condition of service providers, including additional bankruptcies, or inability to raise capital;

·       new product introductions by our competitors;

·       failure of our products to perform as expected; or

·       difficulties we may incur in meeting customers’ delivery requirements.

The loss of any of our significant customers or any substantial reduction in orders or contractual commitments from these customers could materially and adversely affect our financial position and results of operations. If we do not expand our customer base to include additional customers that deploy our products in operational commercial networks, our business, operating results and financial position could be materially and adversely affected.

Our business has been adversely affected by developments in the telecommunications industry and these developments may continue to affect our revenues and operating results.

From our inception through the year 2000, the telecommunications market experienced rapid growth spurred by a number of factors, including deregulation in the industry, entry of a large number of new emerging service providers, growth in data traffic and the availability of significant capital from the financial markets. Commencing in 2001, the telecommunications industry experienced a reversal of some of these trends, marked by dramatic reductions in capital expenditures, financial difficulties, and, in some cases, bankruptcies of service providers. These conditions caused a substantial, unexpected reduction in demand for telecommunications equipment, including our products.

We expect some of the developments described above to continue to affect our business in the following manner:

·       our ability to accurately forecast revenue and plan our business is diminished;

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·       our revenues could be unexpectedly reduced; and

·       we may incur losses because a high percentage of our operating expenses are expected to continue to be fixed in the short-term.

Any one or a combination of the above could materially and adversely affect our business, operating results and financial position.

Consolidation in the telecommunications industry could harm our business.

The industry has experienced consolidation and we expect this trend to continue. Consolidation among our customers may cause delays or reductions in capital expenditure plans and/or increased competitive pricing pressures as the number of available customers declines and their relative purchasing power increases in relation to suppliers. Any of these factors could adversely affect our business.

The market for voice infrastructure products for the public network is new and evolving and our business will suffer if it does not develop as we expect.

The market for our products continues to evolve. In particular, wireless, cable and broadband access networks are becoming important markets for our products. Packet-based technology may not become widely accepted as a platform for voice and a viable market for our products may not be sustainable. If this market does not develop, or develops more slowly than we expect, we may not be able to sell our products in significant volume.

If we do not anticipate and meet specific customer requirements or if our products do not interoperate with our customers’ existing networks, we may not retain current customers or attract new customers.

To achieve market acceptance for our products, we must effectively anticipate, and adapt in a timely manner to, customer requirements and offer products and services that meet changing customer demands. Prospective customers may require product features and capabilities that our current products do not have. The introduction of new or enhanced products also requires that we carefully manage the transition from older products in order to minimize disruption in customer ordering patterns and ensure that adequate supplies of new products can be delivered to meet anticipated customer demand. If we fail to develop products and offer services that satisfy customer requirements, or to effectively manage the transition from older products, our ability to create or increase demand for our products would be seriously harmed and we may lose current and prospective customers.

Many of our customers will require that our products be designed to interface with their existing networks, each of which may have different specifications. Issues caused by an unanticipated lack of interoperability may result in significant warranty, support and repair costs, divert the attention of our engineering personnel from our hardware and software development efforts and cause significant customer relations problems. If our products do not interoperate with those of our customers’ networks, installations could be delayed or orders for our products could be cancelled, which would seriously harm our gross margins and result in loss of revenues or customers.

Our large customers have substantial negotiating leverage, which may require that we agree to terms and conditions that may have an adverse effect on our business.

Large telecommunications providers have substantial purchasing power and leverage in negotiating contractual arrangements with us. These customers may require us to develop additional features and require penalties for failure to deliver such features. As we seek to sell more products to this class of customer, we may be required to agree to such terms and conditions, which may affect the timing of

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revenue recognition and amount of deferred revenues and may adversely affect our financial position in the applicable period affected.

We rely on distribution partners to sell our products in certain markets, and disruptions to or our failure to effectively develop and manage our distribution channel and the processes and procedures that support it could adversely affect our ability to generate revenues from the sale of our products in those markets.

Our future success is highly dependent upon establishing and maintaining successful relationships with a variety of value-added reseller and distribution partners. A portion of our revenues is derived through distributors, many of which sell competitive products. Our revenues depend in part on sales by these distributors. The loss of or reduction in sales by these distributors could materially reduce our revenues. If we fail to maintain relationships with these distribution partners, fail to develop new relationships with distributors in new markets, fail to manage, train, or provide incentives to existing distributors effectively or if these partners are not successful in their sales efforts, sales of our products may decrease and our operating results could suffer.

In addition, we recognize a portion of our revenue based on a sell-through model using information provided by our distributors. If those distributors provide us with inaccurate or untimely information, the amount or timing of our revenues could be adversely affected.

We may face risks associated with our international expansion that could impair our ability to grow our international revenues.

International revenues approximated $78 million and $48 million in fiscal 2006 and fiscal 2005, respectively, and we intend to expand our sales in international markets. This expansion will require significant management attention and financial resources to successfully develop direct and indirect international sales and support channels. In addition, we may not be able to develop international market demand for our products, which could impair our ability to grow our revenues. We have limited experience marketing, distributing and supporting our products internationally and, to do so, we expect that we will need to develop versions of our products that comply with local standards. Furthermore, international operations are subject to other inherent risks, including:

·       reliance on distributors and resellers;

·       greater difficulty collecting accounts receivable and longer collection cycles;

·       difficulties and costs of staffing and managing international operations;

·       the impact of differing technical standards outside the United States;

·       the impact of recessions in economies outside the United States;

·       changes in regulatory requirements and currency exchange rates;

·       certification requirements;

·       reduced protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;

·       potentially adverse tax consequences; and

·       political and economic instability.

The unpredictability of our quarterly results may adversely affect the trading price of our common stock.

Our revenues and operating results may vary significantly from quarter to quarter due to a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control and any of which may cause our stock price to fluctuate. Generally, purchases by service providers of telecommunications equipment from manufacturers have

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been unpredictable and clustered, rather than steady, as the providers build out their networks. The primary factors that may affect our revenues and operating results include the following:

·       fluctuation in demand for our voice infrastructure products and the timing and size of customer orders;

·       the cancellation or deferral of existing customer orders or the renegotiation of existing contractual commitments;

·       the length and variability of the sales cycle for our products;

·       the timing of revenue recognition;

·       new product introductions and enhancements by our competitors or by us;

·       changes in our pricing policies, the pricing policies of our competitors and the prices of the components of our products;

·       our ability to develop, introduce and ship new products and product enhancements that meet customer requirements in a timely manner;

·       the mix of product configurations sold;

·       our ability to obtain sufficient supplies of sole or limited source components;

·       our ability to attain and maintain production volumes and quality levels for our products;

·       costs related to acquisitions of complementary products, technologies or businesses;

·       general economic conditions, as well as those specific to the telecommunications, networking and related industries;

·       consolidation within the telecommunications industry, including acquisitions of or by our customers; and

·       the application of complex revenue recognition accounting rules to our customer arrangements.

As with other telecommunications product suppliers, we may recognize a portion of our revenue in a given quarter from sales booked and shipped in the last weeks of that quarter. As a result, delays in customer orders may result in delays in shipments and recognition of revenue beyond the end of a given quarter.

A significant portion of our operating expenses is fixed in the short-term. If revenues for a particular quarter are below expectations, we may not be able to reduce operating expenses proportionally for the quarter. Any such revenue shortfall would, therefore, have a significant effect on our operating results for the quarter.

Although we achieved profitability on an annual basis in fiscal 2006, fiscal 2005 and fiscal 2004, we have incurred a net loss in certain quarters and may incur additional losses in future quarters and years. Our revenues may not grow and we may never generate sufficient revenues to sustain profitability.

We believe that quarter-to-quarter comparisons of our operating results are not a good indication of our future performance. It is likely that in some future quarters, our operating results may be below the expectations of public market analysts and investors, which may adversely affect our stock price.

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We are entirely dependent upon our voice infrastructure products, and our future revenues depend upon their commercial success.

Our future growth depends upon the commercial success of our voice infrastructure products. We intend to develop and introduce new products and enhancements to existing products in the future. We may not successfully complete the development or introduction of these products. If our target customers do not adopt, purchase and successfully deploy our current or planned products, our revenues will not grow.

If we do not respond rapidly to technological changes or to changes in industry standards, our products could become obsolete.

The market for packet voice infrastructure products is likely to be characterized by rapid technological change and frequent new product introductions. We may be unable to respond quickly or effectively to these developments. We may experience difficulties with software development, hardware design, manufacturing or marketing that could delay or prevent our development, introduction or marketing of new products and enhancements. The introduction of new products by our competitors, the market acceptance of products based on new or alternative technologies or the emergence of new industry standards could render our existing or future products obsolete. If the standards adopted are different from those that we have chosen to support, market acceptance of our products may be significantly reduced or delayed. If our products become technologically obsolete, we may be unable to sell our products in the marketplace and generate revenues.

If we fail to compete successfully against incumbent telecommunications equipment companies, our ability to increase our revenues and sustain profitability will be impaired.

Competition in the telecommunications market is intense. This market has historically been dominated by large incumbent telecommunications equipment companies, such as Alcatel-Lucent, NEC, Nortel Networks, Nokia Siemens and Ericsson, all of which are our direct competitors. We also face competition from other large telecommunications and networking companies, including Cisco Systems, some of which have entered our market by acquiring companies that design competing products. Alcatel and Lucent recently completed their merger. Siemens has combined its networking business with Nokia’s networking business. Other competitors may merge, intensifying competition. Additional competitors with significant financial resources also may enter our markets and further intensify competition.

Many of our current and potential competitors have significantly greater selling and marketing, technical, manufacturing, financial and other resources. Further, some of our competitors sell significant amounts of other products to our current and prospective customers and have the ability to offer lower prices to win business. Our competitors’ broad product portfolios, coupled with already existing relationships, may cause our customers to buy our competitors’ products or harm our ability to attract new customers.

To compete effectively, we must deliver innovative products that:

·       provide extremely high reliability and voice quality;

·       scale easily and efficiently;

·       interoperate with existing network designs and other vendors’ equipment;

·       provide effective network management;

·       are accompanied by comprehensive customer support and professional services;

·       provide a cost-effective and space efficient solution for service providers; and

·       meet price competition from low cost equipment providers.

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If we are unable to compete successfully against our current and future competitors, we could experience price reductions, order cancellations, loss of customers and revenues and reduced gross profit margins.

Because our products are sophisticated and designed to be deployed in complex environments, they may have errors or defects that we find only after full deployment, which could seriously harm our business.

Our products are sophisticated and are designed to be deployed in large and complex networks. Because of the nature of our products, they can only be fully tested when substantially deployed in very large networks with high volumes of traffic. Some of our customers have only recently begun to commercially deploy our products and they may discover errors or defects in the software or hardware, or the products may not operate as expected. As we continue to expand our distribution channel through distributors and resellers, we will need to rely on and support their service and support organizations. If we are unable to fix errors or other performance problems that may be identified after full deployment of our products, we could experience:

·       loss of, or delay in, revenues;

·       loss of customers and market share;

·       a failure to attract new customers or achieve market acceptance for our products;

·       increased service, support and warranty costs and a diversion of development resources; and

·       costly and time-consuming legal actions by our customers.

Because our products are deployed in large, complex networks around the world, failure to establish a support infrastructure and maintain required support levels could seriously harm our business.

Our products are deployed in large and complex networks around the world. Our customers expect us to establish a support infrastructure and maintain demanding support standards to ensure that their networks maintain high levels of availability and performance. To support the continued growth of our business, our support organization will need to provide service and support at a high level throughout the world. If we are unable to provide the expected level of support and service to our customers, we could experience:

·       loss of customers and market share;

·       a failure to attract new customers in new geographies;

·       increased service, support and warranty costs and a diversion of development resources; and

·       network performance penalties.

We have experienced changes in our senior management which could affect our business and operations.

We have made significant changes in our senior management team since January 1, 2006. Because of these significant changes, our management team may not be able to work together effectively to successfully develop and implement our business strategies. In addition, management will need to devote significant attention and resources to preserve and strengthen relationships with employees, customers and the investor community. If our new management team is unable to achieve these goals, our ability to grow our business and successfully meet operational challenges could be impaired.

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If we fail to hire and retain needed personnel, the implementation of our business plan could slow or our future growth could halt.

Our business depends upon highly skilled engineering, sales, marketing and customer support personnel. Any failure to hire or retain needed qualified personnel could impair our growth. We face increased risk associated with employee retention due to restrictions imposed on our employees’ ability to exercise stock options, delays in stock purchases under our Employee Stock Purchase Plan and the adverse tax impact of Section 409A on our employees’ stock options—all of which resulted from our review of historical stock granting practices and the restatement of our financial statements.

Our future success depends upon the continued services of our executive officers who have critical industry experience and relationships that we rely on to implement our business plan. None of our officers or key employees are bound by an employment agreement for any specific term. The loss of the services of any of our officers or key employees could delay the development and introduction of, and negatively impact our ability to sell, our products.

If we are subject to employment claims, we could incur substantial costs in defending ourselves.

We may become subject to employment claims in connection with employee terminations. In addition, companies in our industry whose employees accept positions with competitors may claim that their competitors have engaged in unfair hiring practices. These claims may result in material litigation. We could incur substantial costs defending ourselves or our employees against those claims, regardless of their merits. In addition, defending ourselves from those types of claims could divert our management’s attention from our operations. If we are found liable in connection with any employment claim, we may incur significant costs that could adversely impact our financial position and results of operations.

We depend upon a single contract manufacturer and any disruption in this relationship may cause us to fail to meet the demands of our customers and damage our customer relationships.

We rely on a contract manufacturer to manufacture our products according to our specifications and to fill orders on a timely basis. Our contract manufacturer provides comprehensive manufacturing services, including assembly and certain tests of our products and procurement of materials. Our contract manufacturer also builds products for other companies and may not always have sufficient quantities of inventory available to fill our orders or may not allocate their internal resources to fill these orders on a timely basis. We do not have a long-term supply contract with our manufacturer nor is our manufacturer required to manufacture products for any specified period. We do not have internal manufacturing capabilities to meet our customers’ demands. Qualifying a new contract manufacturer and commencing commercial scale production is expensive and time consuming and could result in a significant interruption in the supply of our products. If a change in contract manufacturers results in delays in our fulfillment of customer orders or if a contract manufacturer fails to make timely delivery of orders, we may lose revenues and suffer damage to our customer relationships. In 2006, we consolidated our manufacturing to a single contract manufacturer. We also intend to move our contract manufacturing to a lower cost, offshore facility. If we do not manage this consolidation effectively, these consolidation activities could result in the disruption in the supply of our products and in delays in our fulfillment of customer orders.

We and our contract manufacturer rely on single or limited sources for supply of some components of our products and if we fail to adequately predict our manufacturing requirements or if our supply of any of these components is disrupted, we will be unable to ship our products.

We and our contract manufacturer currently purchase several key components of our products, including commercial digital signal processors, from single or limited sources. We purchase these components on a purchase order basis. If we overestimate our component requirements, we could have

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excess inventory, which would increase our costs. If we underestimate our requirements, we may not have an adequate supply, which could interrupt manufacturing of our products and result in delays in shipments and revenues.

We currently do not have long-term supply contracts with our component suppliers and they are not required to supply us with products for any specified periods, in any specified quantities or at any set price, except as may be specified in a particular purchase order. In the event of a disruption or delay in supply, or inability to obtain products, we may not be able to develop an alternate source in a timely manner or at favorable prices, or at all. A failure to find acceptable alternative sources could hurt our ability to deliver high-quality products to our customers and negatively affect our operating margins. In addition, reliance on our suppliers exposes us to potential supplier production difficulties or quality variations. Our customers rely upon our ability to meet committed delivery dates, and any disruption in the supply of key components would seriously adversely affect our ability to meet these dates and could result in legal action by our customers, loss of customers or harm our ability to attract new customers.

If we are not able to obtain necessary licenses of third-party technology at acceptable prices, or at all, our products could become obsolete.

We have incorporated third-party licensed technology into our current products. From time to time, we may be required to license additional technology from third parties to develop new products or product enhancements. Third-party licenses may not be available or continue to be available to us on commercially reasonable terms. The inability to maintain or re-license any third-party licenses required in our current products or to obtain any new third-party licenses to develop new products and product enhancements could require us to obtain substitute technology of lower quality or performance standards or at greater cost, and delay or prevent us from making these products or enhancements, any of which could seriously harm the competitiveness of our products.

Failures by our strategic partners or by us in integrating products provided by our strategic partners could seriously harm our business.

Our solutions include the integration of products supplied by strategic partners, who offer complementary products and services. We rely on these strategic partners in the timely and successful deployment of our solutions to our customers. If the products provided by these partners have defects or do not operate as expected or if we do not effectively integrate and support products supplied by these strategic partners, then we may have difficulty with the deployment of our solutions that may result in:

·       loss of, or delay in, revenues;

·       increased service, support and warranty costs and a diversion of development resources; and

·       network performance penalties.

In addition to cooperating with our strategic partners on specific customer projects, we also may compete in some areas with these same partners. If these strategic partners fail to perform or choose not to cooperate with us on certain projects, in addition to the effects described above, we could experience:

·       loss of customers and market share; and

·       a failure to attract new customers or achieve market acceptance for our products.

Our ability to compete and our business could be jeopardized if we are unable to protect our intellectual property or become subject to intellectual property rights claims, which could require us to incur significant costs.

We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws and restrictions on disclosure to protect our intellectual property rights. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights,

33




unauthorized parties may attempt to copy or otherwise obtain and use our products or technology. Monitoring unauthorized use of our products is difficult and we cannot be certain that the steps we have taken will prevent unauthorized use of our technology, particularly in foreign countries where the laws may not protect our proprietary rights as fully as in the United States. If competitors are able to use our technology, our ability to compete effectively could be harmed.

In addition, we have received inquiries from other patent holders and may become subject to claims that we infringe their intellectual property rights. Any parties asserting that our products infringe upon their proprietary rights could force us to license their patents for substantial royalty payments or to defend ourselves and possibly our customers or contract manufacturers in litigation. These claims and any resulting licensing arrangement or lawsuit, if successful, could subject us to significant royalty payments or liability for damages and invalidation of our proprietary rights. Any potential intellectual property litigation also could force us to do one or more of the following:

·       stop selling, incorporating or using our products that use the challenged intellectual property;

·       obtain from the owner of the infringed intellectual property right a license to sell or use the relevant technology, which license may not be available on reasonable terms, or at all; or

·       redesign those products that use any allegedly infringing technology.

Any lawsuits regarding intellectual property rights, regardless of their success, would be time-consuming, expensive to resolve and would divert our management’s time and attention.

On June 14, 2006, C2 Communications Technologies, Inc. (“C2 Communications”) sued AT&T, Inc., Verizon Communications, Inc., Qwest Communications International, Inc. (“Qwest”), Bellsouth Corporation (“Bellsouth”), Sprint Nextel Corporation, Global Crossing Limited (“Global Crossing”) and Level 3 Communications, Inc. (“Level 3”) in the Eastern District of Texas, Marshall Division. C2 Communications has alleged that each of the defendants infringe U.S. Patent No. 6,243,373 entitled “Method and Apparatus for Implementing a Computer Network Internet Telephone System.”  We have agreed, subject to certain conditions, to assume the defense of Qwest, Global Crossing and Level 3 in this litigation to the extent the claim results from their use of products purchased from us. There can be no assurance that other defendants who have purchased our products will not seek indemnification from us. We believe that the defendants have substantial legal and factual defenses to the infringement claim, which we intend to pursue vigorously on behalf of the defendant for whom we agree or are required to assume defense of the litigation. However, there is no assurance any of the defendants will prevail in defending this action. There also can be no assurance that we will not be required to indemnify any of the defendants from any judgment of infringement rendered against them. We will be required to devote significant time and resources in connection with assuming the defense of the claim of infringement on behalf of the defendants for whom we have agreed to assume defense of the litigation. An adverse outcome with respect to the claim and our indemnification could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition.

Any investments or acquisitions we make could disrupt our business and seriously harm our financial condition.

On April 13, 2007, we acquired Zynetix Limited, designers of innovative Global System for Mobile Communications infrastructure solutions. We intend to continue investing in, or acquiring, complementary products, technologies or businesses. In the event of future investments or acquisitions, we could:

·       issue stock that would dilute our current stockholders’ percentage ownership;

·       reduce significantly our cash and investments;

·       incur debt or assume liabilities;

34




·       incur significant impairment charges related to the write-off of goodwill and purchased intangible assets;

·       incur significant amortization expenses related to purchased intangible assets; or

·       incur large and immediate write-offs for in-process research and development and stock based compensation.

Our integration of any acquired products, technologies or businesses will also involve numerous risks, including:

·       problems and unanticipated costs associated with combining the purchased products, technologies or businesses;

·       diversion of management’s attention from our core business;

·       adverse effects on existing business relationships with suppliers and customers;

·       risks associated with entering markets in which we have limited or no prior experience;

·       potential loss of key employees, particularly those of the acquired organizations; and

·       integration of internal controls and financial systems.

We may be unable to successfully integrate any products, technologies, businesses or personnel that we might acquire in the future without significant costs or disruption to our business.

Regulation of the telecommunications industry could harm our operating results and future prospects.

The telecommunications industry is highly regulated and our business and financial condition could be adversely affected by the changes in the regulations relating to the telecommunications industry. Currently, there are few laws or regulations that apply directly to access to or delivery of voice services on IP networks. We could be adversely affected by regulation of IP networks and commerce in any country where we operate, including the United States. Such regulations could include matters such as voice over the Internet or using Internet protocol, encryption technology, and access charges for service providers. The adoption of such regulations could decrease demand for our products, and at the same time increase the cost of selling our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial position.

We may seek to raise additional capital in the future, which may not be available to us, and if it is available, may dilute the ownership of our common stock.

In April and September 2003, we completed public offerings of 20,000,000 and 17,000,000 shares, respectively, of our common stock resulting in the dilution of our existing investors’ percentage ownership of our common stock. In the future, we may seek to raise additional funds through public or private debt or equity financings in order to:

·       fund ongoing operations and capital requirements;

·       take advantage of opportunities, including more rapid expansion or acquisition of complementary products, technologies or businesses;

·       develop new products; or

·       respond to competitive pressures.

Any additional capital raised through the sale of convertible debt or equity may further dilute an investor’s percentage ownership of our common stock. Furthermore, additional financings may not be

35




available on terms favorable to us, or at all. A failure to obtain additional funding could prevent us from making expenditures that may be required to grow or maintain our operations.

Changes in effective tax rates or adverse outcomes resulting from examination of our income or other tax returns could adversely affect our results.

Our future effective tax rates could be adversely affected by earnings being lower than anticipated in countries where we have lower statutory rates and higher than anticipated earnings in countries where we have higher statutory rates, by changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities, or by changes in tax laws or interpretations thereof. The Internal Revenue Service has notified us that our payroll tax returns have been selected for audit in connection with our stock option review. In addition, we are subject to the potential for examination of our income tax returns by the Internal Revenue Service and other tax authorities. We regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes. There can be no assurance that the outcomes from these potential examinations will not have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.

Our stock price has been and may continue to be volatile.

The market for technology stocks has been and will likely continue to be extremely volatile. The following factors could cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate significantly:

·       the addition or loss of any major customer;

·       consolidation in the telecommunications industry;

·       changes in the financial condition or anticipated capital expenditure purchases of any existing or potential major customer;

·       quarterly variations in our operating results;

·       changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;

·       speculation in the press or investment community;

·       announcements by us or our competitors of significant contracts, new products or acquisitions, distribution partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;

·       sales of common stock or other securities by us or by our stockholders in the future;

·       securities and other litigation;

·       announcement of a stock split, reverse stock split, stock dividend or similar event;

·       economic conditions for the telecommunications, networking and related industries; and

·       worldwide economic instability.

Provisions of our charter documents and Delaware law have anti-takeover effects that could prevent a change of control.

Provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our amended and restated by-laws and Delaware law could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so would be beneficial to our stockholders.

Item 1B.       Unresolved Staff Comments

Not applicable.

36




Item 2.                Properties

Our corporate headquarters is located in a leased facility in Westford, Massachusetts, consisting of 130,000 square feet under a lease that expires in July 2012. We moved into this facility in January 2007. Our previous corporate headquarters, a 144,000 square foot building in Chelmsford, Massachusetts, was under a sublease that expired in January 2007. We have additional facilities in Littleton, Massachusetts, consisting of 9,000 square feet under a sublease that expires in December 2008, in Richardson, Texas, consisting of 27,000 square feet under a lease expiring in October 2010 and in Bangalore, India, consisting of approximately 16,000 square feet under a lease expiring in January 2008. We also lease short-term office space in Colorado, New Jersey, Virginia, China, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore and the United Kingdom. We believe our existing facilities are adequate for our current needs and that suitable additional space will be available as needed.

Item 3.                Legal Proceedings

In November 2001, a purchaser of our common stock filed a complaint in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York against us, two of our officers and the lead underwriters alleging violations of the federal securities laws in connection with our initial public offering (“IPO”) and seeking unspecified monetary damages. The purchaser seeks to represent a class of persons who purchased our common stock between the IPO on May 24, 2000 and December 6, 2000. An amended complaint was filed in April 2002. The amended complaint alleges that our registration statement contained false or misleading information or omitted to state material facts concerning the alleged receipt of undisclosed compensation by the underwriters and the existence of undisclosed arrangements between the underwriters and certain purchasers to make additional purchases in the after market. The claims against us are asserted under Section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”) and Section 11 of the Securities Act of 1933 and against the individual defendants under Sections 11 and 15 of the Securities Act and Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Exchange Act. Other plaintiffs have filed substantially similar class action cases against approximately 300 other publicly traded companies and their IPO underwriters which, along with the actions against us, have been transferred to a single federal judge for purposes of coordinated case management. On July 15, 2002, we, together with the other issuers named as defendants in these coordinated proceedings, filed a collective motion to dismiss the consolidated amended complaints on various legal grounds common to all or most of the issuer defendants. The plaintiffs voluntarily dismissed the claims against many of the individual defendants, including our officers named in the complaint. On February 19, 2003, the court granted a portion of the motion to dismiss by dismissing the Section 10(b) claims against certain defendants including us, but denied the remainder of the motion as to the defendants. In June 2003, a special committee of our Board of Directors authorized us to enter into a proposed settlement with the plaintiffs on terms substantially consistent with the terms of a Memorandum of Understanding negotiated among representatives of the plaintiffs, the issuer defendants and the insurers for the issuer defendants. In October 2004, the court certified the class in a case against certain defendants. On February 15, 2005, the court preliminarily approved the terms of the proposed settlement contingent on modifications to the proposed settlement. On August 31, 2005, the court approved the terms of the proposed settlement, as modified. On April 24, 2006, the court held a hearing on a motion to approve the final settlement and took the matter under advisement. On December 5, 2006, the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reversed the court’s October 2004 order certifying a class. On June 25, 2007, the Court entered an order terminating the settlement. Accordingly, we are unable to determine the ultimate outcome or potential range of loss, if any.

Beginning in July 2002, several purchasers of our common stock filed complaints in the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts against us, certain officers and directors and a former officer under Sections 10(b) and 20(a) and Rule 10b-5 of the Exchange Act (the “Class Action Complaints”). The purchasers seek to represent a class of persons who purchased our common stock

37




between December 11, 2000 and January 16, 2002, and seek unspecified monetary damages. The Class Action Complaints were essentially identical and alleged that we made false and misleading statements about our products and business. On March 3, 2003, the plaintiffs filed a Consolidated Amended Complaint. On April 22, 2003, we filed a motion to dismiss the Consolidated Amended Complaint on various grounds. On May 11, 2004, the court held oral argument on the motion, at the conclusion of which the court denied our motion to dismiss. The plaintiffs filed a motion for class certification on July 30, 2004. On February 16, 2005, the court certified the class and appointed a class representative. On March 9, 2005, the court appointed the law firm of Moulton & Gans as lead counsel. After the court requested additional briefing on the adequacy of the class representative, the class representative withdrew. Lead counsel then filed a motion to substitute a new plaintiff as the class representative. On May 19, 2005, the court held a hearing on the motion and took the matter under advisement. On August 15, 2005, the court issued an order decertifying the class and requiring the parties to submit a joint report informing the court whether the cases have been settled and whether defendants would be seeking to recover attorney’s fees from the plaintiffs. On September 30, 2005, the plaintiffs filed motions to voluntarily dismiss their complaints with prejudice. On October 5, 2005, the court entered an order dismissing the cases. On June 26, 2006, the court issued an order denying our motion for recovery of attorneys’ fees.

On January 6, 2006, a purchaser of our common stock filed a complaint in the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts that is essentially identical to the Consolidated Amended Complaint previously filed against the defendants. The Court has appointed the Public Employees’ Retirement System of Mississippi as lead plaintiff. The lead plaintiff has filed an Amended Consolidated Complaint. The defendants filed on April 19, 2007 a motion to dismiss the Amended Consolidated Complaint. There is no assurance we will prevail in such a motion or defending this action. A judgment or a settlement of the claims against the defendants could have a material impact on our financial results. It is too early to determine the ultimate outcome or potential range of loss, if any.

Beginning in February 2004, a number of purported shareholder class action complaints were filed in the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts against us and certain of our current officers and directors. On June 28, 2004, the court consolidated the claims. On December 1, 2004, the lead plaintiff filed a consolidated amended complaint. The complaint asserts claims under the federal securities laws, specifically Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Exchange Act and Sections 11, 12(a), and 15 of the Securities Act, relating to our restatement of our financial results for 2001, 2002, and the first three quarters of 2003. Specifically, the complaint alleges that we issued a series of false or misleading statements to the market concerning our revenues, earnings, and financial condition. Plaintiffs contend that such statements caused our stock price to be artificially inflated. The complaint seeks unspecified damages on behalf of a purported class of purchasers of our common stock during the period from March 28, 2002 through March 26, 2004. On January 28, 2005, we filed a motion to dismiss the Section 10(b) and 12(a) claims and joined the motion to dismiss the Section 11 claim filed by the individual defendants. On June 1, 2005, the court held a hearing on the motion and allowed the plaintiff to file an amended complaint. The plaintiff filed an amended complaint that included the same claims and substantially similar allegations as set forth in the initial complaint. On September 12, 2005, the defendants filed motions to dismiss this amended complaint. On December 10, 2005, the court held a hearing on the motions and took the matter under advisement. On May 10, 2006, the court issued an order granting the defendants’ motions in part and denying the motions in part. The court dismissed the Section 12(a)(2) claims against all the defendants and the Section 10(b) and Section 11 claims against the individual defendants. The court denied the motions as to the Section 10(b) and Section 11 claims against us and Section 15 claims against the individual defendants. The plaintiff has filed a motion for class certification, which the defendants have opposed. The court held a hearing on February 28, 2007 on plaintiff’s motion for class certification and took the matter under advisement. We believe that we have substantial legal and factual defenses to the claims, which we intend to pursue vigorously. We expect to incur significant legal

38




fees in defending this action. At this time, we are unable to determine the ultimate outcome or potential range of loss, if any.

In February 2004, three purported shareholder derivative lawsuits were filed in the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts against us and certain of our officers and directors, naming us as a nominal defendant. Also in February 2004, two purported shareholder derivative lawsuits were filed in the business litigation session of the superior court of Suffolk County of Massachusetts against us and certain of our directors and officers, also naming us as a nominal defendant. The suits claim that certain of our officers and directors breached their fiduciary duties to our stockholders and to us. The complaints are derivative in nature and do not seek relief from us. However, we have entered into indemnification agreements in the ordinary course of business with certain of the defendant officers and directors and may be obligated throughout the pendency of these actions to advance payment of legal fees and costs incurred by the defendants pursuant to our obligations under the indemnification agreements or applicable Delaware law. On September 27, 2004, the state court granted our motion to dismiss. On October 26, 2004, the plaintiffs filed a notice appealing the state court’s dismissal of the actions. On June 24, 2005, the plaintiffs withdrew the appeal and dismissed the case with prejudice. In the federal actions, on June 28, 2004, the court consolidated and stayed the three actions. On October 12, 2004, the lead plaintiff filed a consolidated amended complaint. On June 1, 2005, the court held a hearing on the motion and allowed the plaintiff to file an amended complaint. On July 1, 2005, the plaintiff filed an amended complaint. The defendants renewed their motions to dismiss. On December 10, 2005, the court held a hearing on the motions and took the matter under advisement. On March 31, 2006, the court entered an order granting the defendants’ motions to dismiss the amended complaint. On April 26, 2006, the plaintiffs filed a notice of appeal of the dismissal order. On February 6, 2007, the First Circuit Court of Appeals held a hearing on the appeal. We do not expect that this claim will have a material impact on our financial statements.

In December 2004, a purchaser of our common stock filed a complaint in the circuit court in Will County, Illinois, against us, one of our officers, and a former officer alleging misrepresentation and fraud in connection with the plaintiff’s purchase of our stock. The complaint seeks unspecified damages. We filed a motion to dismiss the complaint. On May 5, 2005, the plaintiff filed an amended complaint. On October 26, 2005, the court held a hearing on the motion during which it dismissed the federal claims without prejudice and dismissed the state claims without prejudice. On November 23, 2005, the plaintiff filed a second amended complaint with essentially the same allegations as in the prior complaints. The defendants renewed their motions to dismiss with respect to the second amended complaint. On March 9, 2006, the court held a hearing on the defendants’ motions during which the court entered an order dismissing the second amended complaint with prejudice. On April 17, 2006, the plaintiff filed a notice of appeal of the dismissal order. In order to avoid the costs of an appeal, we agreed to settle the matter for a de minimus amount. On June 23, 2006, the court entered an order dismissing the case.

On June 14, 2006, C2 Communications sued AT&T, Inc., Verizon Communications, Inc., Qwest, Bellsouth Corporation, Sprint Nextel Corporation, Global Crossing and Level 3 in the Eastern District of Texas, Marshall Division. C2 Communications has alleged that each of the defendants infringe U.S. Patent No. 6,243,373 entitled “Method and Apparatus for Implementing a Computer Network Internet Telephone System.”  We have agreed, subject to certain conditions, to assume the defense of Qwest, Global Crossing and Level 3 in this litigation to the extent the claim results from their use of products purchased from us. There can be no assurance that other defendants who have purchased our products will not seek indemnification from us. The court issued a scheduling order with a trial date of August 4, 2008. We believe that the defendants have substantial legal and factual defenses to the infringement claim, which we intend to pursue vigorously on behalf of the defendant for whom we agree or are required to assume defense of the litigation. However, there is no assurance any of the defendants will prevail in defending this action. There also can be no assurance that we will not be required to indemnify any of the defendants from any judgment of infringement rendered against them. We may be required to devote significant time

39




and resources in connection with assuming the defense of the claim of infringement on behalf of the defendants for whom we have agreed to assume defense of the litigation. An adverse outcome with respect to the claim and our indemnification could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition. We cannot predict the ultimate outcome of this litigation or any potential impact on our operating results or financial position.

On November 14, 2006, a purported shareholder derivative lawsuit was filed in the United District Court for the District of Massachusetts against us and certain of our officers and directors, naming us as a nominal defendant. Other purported shareholders filed virtually identical complaints. The suits claim that certain of our officers and directors breached their fiduciary duties to our stockholders and to us in connection with our announced stock option review. The complaints are derivative in nature and do not seek relief from us. However, we have entered into indemnification agreements in the ordinary course of business with certain of the defendant officers and directors and may be obligated throughout the pendency of these actions to advance payment of legal fees and costs incurred by the defendants pursuant to our obligations under the indemnification agreements or applicable Delaware law. By order dated December 18, 2006, the Court consolidated the actions. The plaintiffs have filed a consolidated complaint. The defendants filed on March 19, 2007 a motion to dismiss the consolidated complaint. The Court held a hearing on July 11, 2007, and took the motion under advisement. We believe that we have substantial legal and factual defenses to the derivative claims, which we intend to pursue vigorously. There is no assurance we will prevail in defending these actions. We cannot predict the ultimate outcome of this litigation or any potential impact on our operating results or financial position.

On January 19, 2007, a purported shareholder derivative lawsuit was filed in the Superior Court Department of Middlesex County of Massachusetts against certain of our directors and officers, also naming us as a nominal defendant. Another purported shareholder filed a virtually identical complaint. The suits assert similar claims and seek relief similar to the derivative suits filed in federal court. On May 7, 2007, the plaintiffs filed a consolidated complaint. On June 6, 2007, the defendants moved to dismiss the consolidated complaint. The Court scheduled a hearing on the motion for August 14, 2007. We believe that we have substantial legal and factual defenses to the derivative claims, which we intend to pursue vigorously. There is no assurance we will prevail in defending these actions. We cannot predict the ultimate outcome of this litigation or any potential impact on our operating results or financial position.

As announced on March 19, 2007, the SEC is conducting a formal private investigation into our historical stock option granting practices. If we are subject to adverse findings, we could be required to pay damages or penalties or have other remedies imposed, including criminal penalties, which could adversely affect our business, financial position or results of operations.

We include standard intellectual property indemnification provisions in our product agreements in the ordinary course of business. Pursuant to our product agreements, we will indemnify, hold harmless, and reimburse the indemnified party for losses suffered or incurred by the indemnified party, generally business partners or customers, in connection with certain patent, copyright or other intellectual property infringement claims by third parties with respect to our products. Other agreements with our customers provide indemnification for claims relating to property damage or personal injury resulting from the performance of services by us or our subcontractors. Historically, our costs to defend lawsuits or settle claims relating to such indemnity agreements have been insignificant. Accordingly, the estimated fair value of these indemnification provisions is immaterial.

The Internal Revenue Service has notified us that our payroll tax returns for the years ended December 31, 2004, 2005 and 2006 have been selected for audit in connection with our stock option review. In connection with the restatement of our financial statements included in this Form 10-K, we have recorded approximately $1.6 million of accruals for additional tax, penalties and interest related to adjustments resulting from errors in stock option accounting. For more information about stock-based

40




compensation, including the financial statement impact from the restatement, see Note 2, “Restatement of Consolidated Financial Statements” of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements. We could be required to pay additional tax, penalties or interest, or have other remedies imposed, which could adversely impact our business, financial position or results of operations.

Item 4.                Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders

Not applicable.

41




PART II

Item 5.                Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information

Our common stock is quoted on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “SONS.”  All companies listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market are required to comply with certain continued listing standards.

The following table sets forth, for the time periods indicated, the high and low sales prices of our common stock as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market.

 

 

High

 

Low

 

Fiscal 2006

 

 

 

 

 

First quarter

 

$

5.58

 

$

3.69

 

Second quarter

 

$

5.70

 

$

3.81

 

Third quarter

 

$

5.75

 

$

3.96

 

Fourth quarter

 

$

7.09

 

$

4.71

 

Fiscal 2005

 

 

 

 

 

First quarter

 

$

6.43

 

$

4.12

 

Second quarter

 

$

5.08

 

$

3.16

 

Third quarter

 

$

5.80

 

$

4.50

 

Fourth quarter

 

$

5.99

 

$

3.54

 

 

Holders

At June 28, 2007, there were 583 holders of record of our common stock.

Dividend Policy

We have never declared or paid cash dividends and have no present intention to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

None.

42




Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

We have not announced any currently effective authorization to repurchase shares of our common stock. However, upon vesting of restricted stock awards, employees are permitted to return to us a portion of the newly vested shares to satisfy the tax withholding obligations that arise in connection with such vesting. The following table summarizes repurchases of our common stock during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2006, which represent shares returned to satisfy tax withholding obligations:

Period

 

 

 

Total Number
of Shares
Purchased

 

Average
Price Paid
per Share

 

Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs

 

Approximate Dollar
Value of Shares
that May Yet be
Purchased
Under the Plans
or Programs

 

October 1, 2006 to October 31, 2006

 

 

 

 

 

$

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

November 1, 2006 to November 30, 2006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 1, 2006 to December 31, 2006

 

 

28,604

 

 

 

6.59

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

28,604

 

 

 

$

6.59

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Performance Graph

The following performance graph compares the cumulative total return to stockholders for our common stock for the period from December 31, 2001 through December 31, 2006 with the cumulative total return over the same period on the NASDAQ Composite Index and the NASDAQ Telecommunications Index. The comparison assumes an investment of $100 on December 31, 2001 in our common stock and in each of the indices and, in each case, assumes reinvestment of all dividends. The performance shown is not necessarily indicative of future performance.

COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among Sonus Networks, Inc., The NASDAQ Composite Index
And The NASDAQ Telecommunications Index

GRAPHIC

*                    $100 invested on 12/31/01 in stock or index-including reinvestment of dividends.
Fiscal year ending December 31.

43




ITEM 6.                SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

We have restated our consolidated financial statements as of and for each of the years ended December 31, 2002 through 2005, which is reflected in the following selected financial data. The restatement is more fully described in the “Explanatory Note” immediately preceding Part I, Item 1 and in Note 2, “Restatement of Consolidated Financial Statements,” which is included in “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” in Item 8 of this Form 10-K. This information should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and notes thereto, and our “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Item 7 of this Form 10-K.

 

 

Year ended December 31,

 

 

 

2006

 

2005

 

2004

 

2003

 

2002

 

 

 

 

 

Restated(1)

 

Restated(1)

 

Restated(2)

 

Restated(2)

 

 

 

(In thousands, except per share amounts)

 

Consolidated Statement of Operations Data

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product

 

$

203,592

 

 

$

135,198

 

 

 

$

124,607

 

 

 

$

59,841

 

 

 

$

69,198

 

 

Service

 

75,891

 

 

60,164

 

 

 

46,295

 

 

 

32,755

 

 

 

25,139

 

 

Total revenue

 

279,483

 

 

195,362

 

 

 

170,902

 

 

 

92,596

 

 

 

94,337

 

 

Cost of revenue(3):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Write off inventory and purchase commitments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6,130

 

 

Product

 

70,823

 

 

53,542

 

 

 

33,227

 

 

 

23,536

 

 

 

33,685

 

 

Service

 

29,609

 

 

24,683

 

 

 

18,672

 

 

 

15,393

 

 

 

14,951

 

 

Total cost of revenue

 

100,432

 

 

78,225

 

 

 

51,899

 

 

 

38,929

 

 

 

54,766

 

 

Gross profit

 

179,051

 

 

117,137

 

 

 

119,003

 

 

 

53,667

 

 

 

39,571

 

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development(3)

 

55,446

 

 

47,581

 

 

 

37,956

 

 

 

36,029

 

 

 

61,214

 

 

Sales and marketing(3)

 

65,748

 

 

45,913

 

 

 

36,346

 

 

 

26,875

 

 

 

37,093

 

 

General and administrative(3)(4)

 

35,366

 

 

27,699

 

 

 

26,016

 

 

 

14,380

 

 

 

21,879

 

 

Amortization of goodwill and purchased intangible assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,402

 

 

 

2,408

 

 

 

4,229

 

 

Write-off of goodwill and purchased intangible assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10,950

 

 

Total operating expenses

 

156,560

 

 

121,193

 

 

 

102,720

 

 

 

79,692

 

 

 

135,365

 

 

Income (loss) from operations

 

22,491

 

 

(4,056

)

 

 

16,283

 

 

 

(26,025

)

 

 

(95,794

)

 

Interest and other income (expense), net

 

15,405

 

 

9,380

 

 

 

3,796

 

 

 

1,525

 

 

 

1,318

 

 

Income (loss) before income taxes

 

37,896

 

 

5,324

 

 

 

20,079

 

 

 

(24,500

)

 

 

(94,476

)

 

Income tax benefit (provision)

 

64,958

 

 

(539

)

 

 

(497

)

 

 

521

 

 

 

(18

)

 

Net income (loss)

 

$

102,854

 

 

$

4,785

 

 

 

$

19,582

 

 

 

$

(23,979

)

 

 

$

(94,494

)

 

Net income (loss) per share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

$

0.41

 

 

$

0.02

 

 

 

$

0.08

 

 

 

$

(0.11

)

 

 

$

(0.49

)

 

Diluted

 

$

0.40

 

 

$

0.02

 

 

 

$

0.08

 

 

 

$

(0.11

)

 

 

$

(0.49

)

 

Shares used in computing net income (loss) per share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

253,771

 

 

248,584

 

 

 

245,830

 

 

 

220,696

 

 

 

191,008

 

 

Diluted

 

258,338

 

 

252,803

 

 

 

252,993

 

 

 

220,696

 

 

 

191,008

 

 

 

44




 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2006

 

2005

 

2004

 

2003

 

2002

 

 

 

 

 

Restated(1)

 

Restated(2)

 

Restated(2)

 

Restated(2)

 

 

 

(In thousands)

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash, cash equivalents, marketable debt securities and long-term investments

 

$

360,880

 

 

$

314,241

 

 

 

$

312,013

 

 

 

$

305,391

 

 

 

$

118,138

 

 

Working capital

 

$

312,197

 

 

$

278,047

 

 

 

$

269,116

 

 

 

$

259,642

 

 

 

$

60,940

 

 

Total assets

 

$

589,604

 

 

$

457,206

 

 

 

$

396,497

 

 

 

$

358,971

 

 

 

$

153,413

 

 

Long-term deferred revenue, net of current portion

 

$

33,787

 

 

$

33,853

 

 

 

$

25,960

 

 

 

$

24,302

 

 

 

$

8,024

 

 

Long-term liabilities, net of current portion

 

$

1,467

 

 

$

1,449

 

 

 

$

692

 

 

 

$

829

 

 

 

$

3,293

 

 

Convertible subordinated note

 

$

 

 

$

10,000

 

 

 

$

10,000

 

 

 

$

10,000

 

 

 

$

10,000

 

 

Total stockholders’ equity

 

$

432,533

 

 

$

278,812

 

 

 

$

263,712

 

 

 

$

233,615

 

 

 

$

56,311

 

 


(1)          See the “Explanatory Note” immediately preceding Part I, Item 1 and Note 2, “Restatement of Consolidated Financial Statements,” of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in this Form 10-K.

(2)          The restated amounts are derived from financial statements that have not been audited. The selected consolidated financial balance sheet data for 2004 and the selected financial data for 2003 and 2002, presented above, have been restated to reflect adjustments related to the restatement described in Note 2 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements. In the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2004, these cumulative amounts are reflected as adjustments to the beginning balances of the accumulated deficit of Stockholders’ Equity in the Statement of Stockholders’ Equity and Comprehensive Income.

(3)          The presentation of stock-based compensation for 2002 through 2005, which historically has been presented separately, has been reclassified into the applicable cost and expense categories to conform to the 2006 presentation.

(4)          General and administrative expenses include a reversal of an accrued restructuring expense of $0.4 million in fiscal 2006 and a restructuring expense of $7.7 million in fiscal 2002.

45




A summary of the adjustments to the Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years ended December 31, 2003 and 2002, and the Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2004, 2003 and 2002 is below (in thousands):

Consolidated Statements of Operations

 

 

Year ended December 31, 2003

 

Year ended December 31, 2002

 

 

 

As Previously
Reported

 

Adjustments(5)

 

As Restated

 

As Previously
Reported

 

Adjustments(6)

 

As Restated

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product

 

 

$

60,851

 

 

 

$

(1,010

)

 

 

$

59,841

 

 

 

$

68,572

 

 

 

$

626

 

 

 

$

69,198

 

 

Service

 

 

32,359

 

 

 

396

 

 

 

32,755

 

 

 

25,345

 

 

 

(206

)

 

 

25,139

 

 

Total revenue

 

 

93,210

 

 

 

(614

)

 

 

92,596

 

 

 

93,917

 

 

 

420

 

 

 

94,337

 

 

Cost of revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Write-off of goodwill and purchased
intangible assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6,130

 

 

 

 

 

 

6,130

 

 

Product

 

 

23,575

 

 

 

(39

)

 

 

23,536

 

 

 

33,573

 

 

 

112

 

 

 

33,685

 

 

Service

 

 

14,379

 

 

 

1,014

 

 

 

15,393

 

 

 

12,108

 

 

 

2,843

 

 

 

14,951

 

 

Total cost of revenue(3)

 

 

37,954

 

 

 

975

 

 

 

38,929

 

 

 

51,811

 

 

 

2,955

 

 

 

54,766

 

 

Gross profit

 

 

55,256

 

 

 

(1,589

)

 

 

53,667

 

 

 

42,106

 

 

 

(2,535

)

 

 

39,571

 

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and
development(3)

 

 

33,370

 

 

 

2,659

 

 

 

36,029

 

 

 

53,521

 

 

 

7,693

 

 

 

61,214

 

 

Sales and marketing(3)

 

 

24,711

 

 

 

2,164

 

 

 

26,875

 

 

 

32,727

 

 

 

4,366

 

 

 

37,093

 

 

General and
administrative(3)

 

 

11,126

 

 

 

3,254

 

 

 

14,380

 

 

 

15,752

 

 

 

6,127

 

 

 

21,879

 

 

Amortization of goodwill and purchased intangible assets assets

 

 

2,408

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,408

 

 

 

4,229

 

 

 

 

 

 

4,229

 

 

Write-off of goodwill and purchased intangible
assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10,950

 

 

 

 

 

 

10,950

 

 

Total operating
expenses

 

 

71,615

 

 

 

8,077

 

 

 

79,692

 

 

 

117,179

 

 

 

18,186

 

 

 

135,365

 

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(16,359

)

 

 

(9,666

)

 

 

(26,025

)

 

 

(75,073

)

 

 

(20,721

)

 

 

(95,794

)

 

Interest income, net

 

 

1,525

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,525

 

 

 

1,318

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,318

 

 

Loss before income
taxes

 

 

(14,834

)

 

 

(9,666

)

 

 

(24,500

)

 

 

(73,755

)

 

 

(20,721

)

 

 

(94,476

)

 

Income tax benefit
(provision)

 

 

(302

)

 

 

823

 

 

 

521

 

 

 

(86

)

 

 

68

 

 

 

(18

)

 

Net loss

 

 

$

(15,136

)

 

 

$

(8,843

)

 

 

$

(23,979

)

 

 

$

(73,841

)

 

 

$

(20,653

)

 

 

$

(94,494

)

 

Net loss per common share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic and diluted

 

 

$

(0.07

)

 

 

$

(0.04

)

 

 

$

(0.11

)

 

 

$

(0.39

)

 

 

$

(0.10

)

 

 

$

(0.49

)

 

Shares used in computing
net loss per share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

 

220,696

 

 

 

 

 

 

220,696

 

 

 

191,008

 

 

 

 

 

 

191,008

 

 

Diluted

 

 

220,696

 

 

 

 

 

 

220,696

 

 

 

191,008

 

 

 

 

 

 

191,008

 

 


(3)           The presentation of stock-based compensation for 2002 through 2005, which historically has been presented separately, has been reclassified into the applicable cost and expense categories to conform to the 2006 presentation.

46




Consolidated Balance Sheet

 

 

December 31, 2004

 

 

 

As Previously
Reported

 

Adjustments(7)

 

As Restated

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

 

$

121,931

 

 

 

$

(1,092

)

 

 

$

120,839

 

 

Marketable debt securities

 

 

170,145

 

 

 

 

 

 

170,145

 

 

Accounts receivable, net

 

 

32,486

 

 

 

2,194

 

 

 

34,680

 

 

Inventory, net

 

 

28,346

 

 

 

(18

)

 

 

28,328

 

 

Other current assets

 

 

10,891

 

 

 

366

 

 

 

11,257

 

 

Total current assets

 

 

363,799

 

 

 

1,450

 

 

 

365,249

 

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

8,217

 

 

 

(61

)

 

 

8,156

 

 

Long-term investments

 

 

21,029

 

 

 

 

 

 

21,029

 

 

Deferred income taxes

 

 

 

 

 

704

 

 

 

704

 

 

Other assets

 

 

783

 

 

 

576

 

 

 

1,359

 

 

Total assets

 

 

$

393,828

 

 

 

$

2,669

 

 

 

$

396,497

 

 

Liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

 

$

8,654

 

 

 

$

 

 

 

$

8,654

 

 

Accrued expenses

 

 

18,240

 

 

 

1,286

 

 

 

19,526

 

 

Accrued restructuring expenses

 

 

186

 

 

 

 

 

 

186

 

 

Current portion of deferred revenue

 

 

65,105

 

 

 

2,632

 

 

 

67,737

 

 

Current portion of long-term liabilities

 

 

30

 

 

 

 

 

 

30

 

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

92,215

 

 

 

3,918

 

 

 

96,133

 

 

Long-term deferred revenue

 

 

25,960

 

 

 

 

 

 

25,960

 

 

Long-term liabilities, net of current portion

 

 

613

 

 

 

79

 

 

 

692

 

 

Convertible subordinated note

 

 

10,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

10,000

 

 

Total liabilities

 

 

128,788

 

 

 

3,997

 

 

 

132,785

 

 

Stockholders’ equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock

 

 

250

 

 

 

 

 

 

250

 

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

1,049,142

 

 

 

54,259

 

 

 

1,103,401

 

 

Deferred compensation

 

 

 

 

 

(3,800

)

 

 

(3,800

)

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(784,085

)

 

 

(51,787

)

 

 

(835,872

)

 

Treasury stock

 

 

(267

)

 

 

 

 

 

(267

)

 

Total stockholders’ equity

 

 

265,040

 

 

 

(1,328

)

 

 

263,712

 

 

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 

 

$

393,828

 

 

 

$

2,669

 

 

 

$

396,497

 

 

 

47




 

 

 

December 31, 2003

 

December 31, 2002

 

 

 

As Previously
Reported

 

Adjustments(5)

 

As Restated

 

As Previously
Reported

 

Adjustments(6)

 

As Restated

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash
equivalents

 

 

$

133,715

 

 

 

$

(1

)